Warfarin vs. apixaban in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, and analysis by concomitant antiarrhythmic medication use: A national retrospective study

Matthew A. Wanat, Xin Wang, Rutugandha Paranjpe, Hua Chen, Michael L. Johnson, Marc L. Fleming, Susan M. Abughosh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: No real-world data exist on outcomes in patients on anticoagulants and concomitant antiarrhythmic medications. This study aims to compare the safety and effectiveness of apixaban and warfarin, first in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and then in patients on concurrent antiarrhythmic medications. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a large US electronic medical record database (2012-2016). Patients with NVAF on warfarin or apixaban were included. The primary endpoint was a composite of stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic) or systemic embolism. The primary safety endpoint was major bleeding (ISTH definition). Patients were matched using propensity scoring. Univariate survival analyses were conducted by using the log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. A subgroup analysis was conducted to assess outcomes on patients on concurrent antiarrhythmic medications. Results: A total of 332 100 patients with NVAF were identified, and 20 378 were included in the propensity-matching analysis. No baseline differences were seen in age, comorbidities, or CHA2DS2-VASc score. The primary endpoint occurred in 122 (1.2%) patients on apixaban compared to 166 (1.63%) on warfarin (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-0.88). Major bleeding occurred at a lower rate in the apixaban group (n = 600, 5.89%) compared to warfarin (n = 887, 8.71%) (odds ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.58-0.73). In patients on concurrent antiarrhythmic medications (n = 2498), there was no difference in thrombotic (1.04% vs. 1.37%; P = 0.42) or bleeding events (5.29% vs. 6.89%; P = 0.08). Conclusion: Apixaban was associated with reduced stroke/systemic embolism and bleeding when compared with warfarin. No difference was seen in thrombotic or bleeding events in patients on concurrent antiarrhythmic medications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)674-683
Number of pages10
JournalResearch and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Volume3
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2019

Keywords

  • anticoagulation
  • apixaban
  • atrial fibrillation
  • bleeding
  • stroke
  • warfarin

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