Vaping Expectancies: A Qualitative Study among Young Adult Nonusers, Smokers, Vapers, and Dual Users

Paul T. Harrell, Thomas H. Brandon, Kelli J. England, Tracey Elaine Barnett, Laurel O. Brockenberry, Vani N. Simmons, Gwendolyn P. Quinn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: “Expectancies,” or beliefs about outcomes, robustly correlate with and predict several behaviors including electronic nicotine delivery system (“e-cigarette”) use. However, there is limited qualitative research available regarding relevant e-cigarette vaping expectancies. Objectives: The present study used a qualitative approach to derive and refine e-cigarette expectancy themes among young adults. Methods: We conducted 12 focus groups and two individual interviews with young adult nonusers, e-cigarette vapers, cigarette smokers, and dual users to assess beliefs about the effects of e-cigarettes. After a series of open-ended questions, follow-up questions assessed reactions to domains previously examined in expectancy measures for cigarette smoking and e-cigarette vaping. The constant comparative method was used to derive themes from transcripts. Results: Four main themes (Positive Reinforcement, Social Benefits, Negative Affect Reduction, Negative Consequences) emerged from the results. Each theme contained three associated subthemes (Positive Reinforcement: Sensorimotor Experiences, Taste, Stimulation; Social Benefits: Social Facilitation, Influence on Others, Convenience; Negative Affect Reduction: Stress Reduction, Appetite Reduction, Boredom Reduction; and Negative Consequences: Health Risks, Addiction, Secondhand Effects). Conclusions/importance: Previously identified smoking expectancies appear relevant for young adult vaping, with some notable refinements. Positive reinforcement aspects encompassed aerosol clouds, vaping tricks, and unique flavors. Social benefits included influencing others via social media and competitive activity, as well as the convenience of use in a variety of places. Negative affect reduction was controversial among user groups, but vaping was seen as more interesting than smoking and thus more effective at boredom reduction. Young adults were uncertain regarding negative consequences, but appreciated a potential for secondhand effects. Measure refinement via qualitative research and future field testing can enhance our understanding of this relatively new behavior, supporting tobacco control surveillance, marketing/labeling regulations, and counter-advertising development/evaluation.

Original languageEnglish
JournalSubstance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Volume13
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2019

Fingerprint

Tobacco Products
Young Adult
Boredom
Qualitative Research
Smoking
Social Facilitation
Social Media
Appetite
Vaping
Marketing
Aerosols
Focus Groups
Nicotine
Tobacco
Interviews
Health
Reinforcement (Psychology)

Keywords

  • electronic nicotine delivery systems
  • qualitative research
  • surveys and questionnaires
  • young adult

Cite this

Harrell, Paul T. ; Brandon, Thomas H. ; England, Kelli J. ; Barnett, Tracey Elaine ; Brockenberry, Laurel O. ; Simmons, Vani N. ; Quinn, Gwendolyn P. / Vaping Expectancies : A Qualitative Study among Young Adult Nonusers, Smokers, Vapers, and Dual Users. In: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment. 2019 ; Vol. 13.
@article{50e390195fa3483ab3dec16bbc120de4,
title = "Vaping Expectancies: A Qualitative Study among Young Adult Nonusers, Smokers, Vapers, and Dual Users",
abstract = "Background: “Expectancies,” or beliefs about outcomes, robustly correlate with and predict several behaviors including electronic nicotine delivery system (“e-cigarette”) use. However, there is limited qualitative research available regarding relevant e-cigarette vaping expectancies. Objectives: The present study used a qualitative approach to derive and refine e-cigarette expectancy themes among young adults. Methods: We conducted 12 focus groups and two individual interviews with young adult nonusers, e-cigarette vapers, cigarette smokers, and dual users to assess beliefs about the effects of e-cigarettes. After a series of open-ended questions, follow-up questions assessed reactions to domains previously examined in expectancy measures for cigarette smoking and e-cigarette vaping. The constant comparative method was used to derive themes from transcripts. Results: Four main themes (Positive Reinforcement, Social Benefits, Negative Affect Reduction, Negative Consequences) emerged from the results. Each theme contained three associated subthemes (Positive Reinforcement: Sensorimotor Experiences, Taste, Stimulation; Social Benefits: Social Facilitation, Influence on Others, Convenience; Negative Affect Reduction: Stress Reduction, Appetite Reduction, Boredom Reduction; and Negative Consequences: Health Risks, Addiction, Secondhand Effects). Conclusions/importance: Previously identified smoking expectancies appear relevant for young adult vaping, with some notable refinements. Positive reinforcement aspects encompassed aerosol clouds, vaping tricks, and unique flavors. Social benefits included influencing others via social media and competitive activity, as well as the convenience of use in a variety of places. Negative affect reduction was controversial among user groups, but vaping was seen as more interesting than smoking and thus more effective at boredom reduction. Young adults were uncertain regarding negative consequences, but appreciated a potential for secondhand effects. Measure refinement via qualitative research and future field testing can enhance our understanding of this relatively new behavior, supporting tobacco control surveillance, marketing/labeling regulations, and counter-advertising development/evaluation.",
keywords = "electronic nicotine delivery systems, qualitative research, surveys and questionnaires, young adult",
author = "Harrell, {Paul T.} and Brandon, {Thomas H.} and England, {Kelli J.} and Barnett, {Tracey Elaine} and Brockenberry, {Laurel O.} and Simmons, {Vani N.} and Quinn, {Gwendolyn P.}",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1177/1178221819866210",
language = "English",
volume = "13",
journal = "Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment",
issn = "1178-2218",
publisher = "Libertas Academica Ltd.",

}

Vaping Expectancies : A Qualitative Study among Young Adult Nonusers, Smokers, Vapers, and Dual Users. / Harrell, Paul T.; Brandon, Thomas H.; England, Kelli J.; Barnett, Tracey Elaine; Brockenberry, Laurel O.; Simmons, Vani N.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.

In: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment, Vol. 13, 01.08.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Vaping Expectancies

T2 - A Qualitative Study among Young Adult Nonusers, Smokers, Vapers, and Dual Users

AU - Harrell, Paul T.

AU - Brandon, Thomas H.

AU - England, Kelli J.

AU - Barnett, Tracey Elaine

AU - Brockenberry, Laurel O.

AU - Simmons, Vani N.

AU - Quinn, Gwendolyn P.

PY - 2019/8/1

Y1 - 2019/8/1

N2 - Background: “Expectancies,” or beliefs about outcomes, robustly correlate with and predict several behaviors including electronic nicotine delivery system (“e-cigarette”) use. However, there is limited qualitative research available regarding relevant e-cigarette vaping expectancies. Objectives: The present study used a qualitative approach to derive and refine e-cigarette expectancy themes among young adults. Methods: We conducted 12 focus groups and two individual interviews with young adult nonusers, e-cigarette vapers, cigarette smokers, and dual users to assess beliefs about the effects of e-cigarettes. After a series of open-ended questions, follow-up questions assessed reactions to domains previously examined in expectancy measures for cigarette smoking and e-cigarette vaping. The constant comparative method was used to derive themes from transcripts. Results: Four main themes (Positive Reinforcement, Social Benefits, Negative Affect Reduction, Negative Consequences) emerged from the results. Each theme contained three associated subthemes (Positive Reinforcement: Sensorimotor Experiences, Taste, Stimulation; Social Benefits: Social Facilitation, Influence on Others, Convenience; Negative Affect Reduction: Stress Reduction, Appetite Reduction, Boredom Reduction; and Negative Consequences: Health Risks, Addiction, Secondhand Effects). Conclusions/importance: Previously identified smoking expectancies appear relevant for young adult vaping, with some notable refinements. Positive reinforcement aspects encompassed aerosol clouds, vaping tricks, and unique flavors. Social benefits included influencing others via social media and competitive activity, as well as the convenience of use in a variety of places. Negative affect reduction was controversial among user groups, but vaping was seen as more interesting than smoking and thus more effective at boredom reduction. Young adults were uncertain regarding negative consequences, but appreciated a potential for secondhand effects. Measure refinement via qualitative research and future field testing can enhance our understanding of this relatively new behavior, supporting tobacco control surveillance, marketing/labeling regulations, and counter-advertising development/evaluation.

AB - Background: “Expectancies,” or beliefs about outcomes, robustly correlate with and predict several behaviors including electronic nicotine delivery system (“e-cigarette”) use. However, there is limited qualitative research available regarding relevant e-cigarette vaping expectancies. Objectives: The present study used a qualitative approach to derive and refine e-cigarette expectancy themes among young adults. Methods: We conducted 12 focus groups and two individual interviews with young adult nonusers, e-cigarette vapers, cigarette smokers, and dual users to assess beliefs about the effects of e-cigarettes. After a series of open-ended questions, follow-up questions assessed reactions to domains previously examined in expectancy measures for cigarette smoking and e-cigarette vaping. The constant comparative method was used to derive themes from transcripts. Results: Four main themes (Positive Reinforcement, Social Benefits, Negative Affect Reduction, Negative Consequences) emerged from the results. Each theme contained three associated subthemes (Positive Reinforcement: Sensorimotor Experiences, Taste, Stimulation; Social Benefits: Social Facilitation, Influence on Others, Convenience; Negative Affect Reduction: Stress Reduction, Appetite Reduction, Boredom Reduction; and Negative Consequences: Health Risks, Addiction, Secondhand Effects). Conclusions/importance: Previously identified smoking expectancies appear relevant for young adult vaping, with some notable refinements. Positive reinforcement aspects encompassed aerosol clouds, vaping tricks, and unique flavors. Social benefits included influencing others via social media and competitive activity, as well as the convenience of use in a variety of places. Negative affect reduction was controversial among user groups, but vaping was seen as more interesting than smoking and thus more effective at boredom reduction. Young adults were uncertain regarding negative consequences, but appreciated a potential for secondhand effects. Measure refinement via qualitative research and future field testing can enhance our understanding of this relatively new behavior, supporting tobacco control surveillance, marketing/labeling regulations, and counter-advertising development/evaluation.

KW - electronic nicotine delivery systems

KW - qualitative research

KW - surveys and questionnaires

KW - young adult

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85071718222&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1177/1178221819866210

DO - 10.1177/1178221819866210

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85071718222

VL - 13

JO - Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment

JF - Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment

SN - 1178-2218

ER -