Use of the Muddiest Point Technique as an exam review in an integrated pharmacotherapy course

Katura C. Bullock, Caitlin Gibson, Meredith Howard, Jialiang Liu, Amulya Tatachar, Wei Cheng Yuet

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background and purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact in student pharmacists’ exam performance learning outcomes and satisfaction after integrating the Muddiest Point assessment technique into exam reviews. Educational activity and setting: In 2016, the Muddiest Point, a formative assessment tool, was used to develop exam review sessions for second-year student pharmacists in an integrated pharmacotherapy course focused on the cardiovascular system. Performance scores on all four exams were compared between students in the 2015 and 2016 courses. Students’ complexity of learning was categorized using a taxonomy of learning structure. A survey was used to evaluate student perceptions of exam reviews and the Muddiest Point technique (MPT). Findings: Scores were higher on the second exam for the 83 students in the 2016 course (78.0% vs. 86.0%, p<0.001). There was no difference on other exam scores or overall course failures. Muddiest points submitted by students demonstrated a variety of taxonomy of learning levels. Student pharmacists surveyed at the conclusion of the course agreed that exam reviews were helpful for their preparation for exams and that the MPT was a valuable use of class time. Incorporating the MPT into exam reviews maintained exam scores and supported evaluation of student learning. In addition, student pharmacists were satisfied with this exam review method.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1295-1302
Number of pages8
JournalCurrents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2018


  • Classroom assessment technique
  • Exam review
  • Formative assessment
  • Integrated pharmacotherapy


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