Trends in medication prescribing for pediatric sleep difficulties in US outpatient settings

Sasko D. Stojanovski, Rafia S. Rasu, Rajesh Balkrishnan, Milap C. Nahata

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations


Objectives: This study examined trends in physician-prescribing of medications for children with sleep difficulties in outpatient settings in the US. Additionally, we explored the incidence of physician prescribing patterns of medications with high abuse potential for children with sleep difficulties. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on patients aged ≤17 years with sleep difficulties from 1993-2004 using data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS). Office visits were considered related to sleep difficulties if relevant ICD-9 codes were recorded and if sleep difficulties were reported as the reason for the visits. Medications were retrieved using the NAMCS drug codes, and all analyses were weighted to determine national estimates. Results: During 1993 to 2004, approximately 18.6 million visits occurred for sleep related difficulty in children. The highest percentage of visits were by school-aged children (6 to 12 years). Pediatricians saw 35% of patients, psychiatrists saw 24%, and general/family practice physicians saw 13% of the patients. Eighty-one percent of visits among children with sleep difficulties resulted in a prescription for a medication. Many of these medications prescribed lack FDA approved labeling to assure their effectiveness and safety in this population. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that physicians frequently prescribed medications for sleep difficulties in children in US outpatient settings. Of particular concern is prescribing of many unapproved medications for this population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1013-1017
Number of pages5
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2007


  • Ambulatory care
  • Drug therapy
  • Insomnia
  • Pediatrics
  • Sleep initiation difficulties and maintenance disorders


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