Total cholesterol and neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease: The impact of total cholesterol level and gender

James Hall, April Rose Wiechmann, Leigh A. Johnson, Melissa Edwards, Robert Clinton Barber, Rebecca Lynn Cunningham, Meharvan Singh, Sidney O'Bryant, Rachelle Doody, Susan Roundtree, Valory Pavlik, Wen Chan, Paul Massman, Eveleen Darby, Tracey Evans, Benjamin Williams, Gregory Schrimsher, Andrew Dentino, Ronnie Orozco, Thomas J. FairchildJanice Knebl, Douglas Mains, Lisa Alvarez, Perrie Adams, Roger Rosenberg, Myron Weiner, Mary Ellen Quiceno, Joan Reisch, Ryan Huebinger, Guanghua Xiao, Doris Svetlik, Amy Werry, Janet Smith, Donald Royall, Raymond Palmer, Marsha Polk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a major factor in nursing home placement and a primary cause of stress for caregivers. Elevated cholesterol has been linked to psychiatric disorders and has been shown to be a risk factor for AD and to impact disease progression. The present study investigated the relationship between cholesterol and NPS in AD.

Methods: Data on cholesterol and NPS from 220 individuals (144 females, 76 males) with mild-to-moderate AD from the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium (TARCC) cohort were analyzed. The total number of NPS and symptoms of hyperactivity, psychosis, affect and apathy were evaluated. Groups based on total cholesterol (TC; ≥ 200 vs. <200 mg/dl) were compared with regard to NPS. The impact of gender was also assessed.

Results: Individuals with high TC had lower MMSE scores as well as significantly more NPS and more symptoms of psychosis. When stratified by gender, males with high TC had significantly more NPS than females with high TC or than males or females with low TC.

Conclusion: The role of elevated cholesterol in the occurrence of NPS in AD appears to be gender and symptom specific. A cross-validation of these findings will have implications for possible treatment interventions, especially for males with high TC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)300-309
Number of pages10
JournalDementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Volume38
DOIs
StatePublished - 7 Nov 2014

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Alzheimer Disease
Cholesterol
Hypercholesterolemia
Psychotic Disorders
Apathy
Nursing Homes
Caregivers
Psychiatry
Disease Progression
Research
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Cholesterol
  • Neuropsychiatric symptoms

Cite this

Hall, James ; Wiechmann, April Rose ; Johnson, Leigh A. ; Edwards, Melissa ; Barber, Robert Clinton ; Cunningham, Rebecca Lynn ; Singh, Meharvan ; O'Bryant, Sidney ; Doody, Rachelle ; Roundtree, Susan ; Pavlik, Valory ; Chan, Wen ; Massman, Paul ; Darby, Eveleen ; Evans, Tracey ; Williams, Benjamin ; Schrimsher, Gregory ; Dentino, Andrew ; Orozco, Ronnie ; Fairchild, Thomas J. ; Knebl, Janice ; Mains, Douglas ; Alvarez, Lisa ; Adams, Perrie ; Rosenberg, Roger ; Weiner, Myron ; Quiceno, Mary Ellen ; Reisch, Joan ; Huebinger, Ryan ; Xiao, Guanghua ; Svetlik, Doris ; Werry, Amy ; Smith, Janet ; Royall, Donald ; Palmer, Raymond ; Polk, Marsha. / Total cholesterol and neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease : The impact of total cholesterol level and gender. In: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 2014 ; Vol. 38. pp. 300-309.
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title = "Total cholesterol and neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease: The impact of total cholesterol level and gender",
abstract = "Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a major factor in nursing home placement and a primary cause of stress for caregivers. Elevated cholesterol has been linked to psychiatric disorders and has been shown to be a risk factor for AD and to impact disease progression. The present study investigated the relationship between cholesterol and NPS in AD.Methods: Data on cholesterol and NPS from 220 individuals (144 females, 76 males) with mild-to-moderate AD from the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium (TARCC) cohort were analyzed. The total number of NPS and symptoms of hyperactivity, psychosis, affect and apathy were evaluated. Groups based on total cholesterol (TC; ≥ 200 vs. <200 mg/dl) were compared with regard to NPS. The impact of gender was also assessed.Results: Individuals with high TC had lower MMSE scores as well as significantly more NPS and more symptoms of psychosis. When stratified by gender, males with high TC had significantly more NPS than females with high TC or than males or females with low TC.Conclusion: The role of elevated cholesterol in the occurrence of NPS in AD appears to be gender and symptom specific. A cross-validation of these findings will have implications for possible treatment interventions, especially for males with high TC.",
keywords = "Alzheimer's disease, Cholesterol, Neuropsychiatric symptoms",
author = "James Hall and Wiechmann, {April Rose} and Johnson, {Leigh A.} and Melissa Edwards and Barber, {Robert Clinton} and Cunningham, {Rebecca Lynn} and Meharvan Singh and Sidney O'Bryant and Rachelle Doody and Susan Roundtree and Valory Pavlik and Wen Chan and Paul Massman and Eveleen Darby and Tracey Evans and Benjamin Williams and Gregory Schrimsher and Andrew Dentino and Ronnie Orozco and Fairchild, {Thomas J.} and Janice Knebl and Douglas Mains and Lisa Alvarez and Perrie Adams and Roger Rosenberg and Myron Weiner and Quiceno, {Mary Ellen} and Joan Reisch and Ryan Huebinger and Guanghua Xiao and Doris Svetlik and Amy Werry and Janet Smith and Donald Royall and Raymond Palmer and Marsha Polk",
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Hall, J, Wiechmann, AR, Johnson, LA, Edwards, M, Barber, RC, Cunningham, RL, Singh, M, O'Bryant, S, Doody, R, Roundtree, S, Pavlik, V, Chan, W, Massman, P, Darby, E, Evans, T, Williams, B, Schrimsher, G, Dentino, A, Orozco, R, Fairchild, TJ, Knebl, J, Mains, D, Alvarez, L, Adams, P, Rosenberg, R, Weiner, M, Quiceno, ME, Reisch, J, Huebinger, R, Xiao, G, Svetlik, D, Werry, A, Smith, J, Royall, D, Palmer, R & Polk, M 2014, 'Total cholesterol and neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease: The impact of total cholesterol level and gender', Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 38, pp. 300-309. https://doi.org/10.1159/000361043

Total cholesterol and neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease : The impact of total cholesterol level and gender. / Hall, James; Wiechmann, April Rose; Johnson, Leigh A.; Edwards, Melissa; Barber, Robert Clinton; Cunningham, Rebecca Lynn; Singh, Meharvan; O'Bryant, Sidney; Doody, Rachelle; Roundtree, Susan; Pavlik, Valory; Chan, Wen; Massman, Paul; Darby, Eveleen; Evans, Tracey; Williams, Benjamin; Schrimsher, Gregory; Dentino, Andrew; Orozco, Ronnie; Fairchild, Thomas J.; Knebl, Janice; Mains, Douglas; Alvarez, Lisa; Adams, Perrie; Rosenberg, Roger; Weiner, Myron; Quiceno, Mary Ellen; Reisch, Joan; Huebinger, Ryan; Xiao, Guanghua; Svetlik, Doris; Werry, Amy; Smith, Janet; Royall, Donald; Palmer, Raymond; Polk, Marsha.

In: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, Vol. 38, 07.11.2014, p. 300-309.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Total cholesterol and neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease

T2 - The impact of total cholesterol level and gender

AU - Hall, James

AU - Wiechmann, April Rose

AU - Johnson, Leigh A.

AU - Edwards, Melissa

AU - Barber, Robert Clinton

AU - Cunningham, Rebecca Lynn

AU - Singh, Meharvan

AU - O'Bryant, Sidney

AU - Doody, Rachelle

AU - Roundtree, Susan

AU - Pavlik, Valory

AU - Chan, Wen

AU - Massman, Paul

AU - Darby, Eveleen

AU - Evans, Tracey

AU - Williams, Benjamin

AU - Schrimsher, Gregory

AU - Dentino, Andrew

AU - Orozco, Ronnie

AU - Fairchild, Thomas J.

AU - Knebl, Janice

AU - Mains, Douglas

AU - Alvarez, Lisa

AU - Adams, Perrie

AU - Rosenberg, Roger

AU - Weiner, Myron

AU - Quiceno, Mary Ellen

AU - Reisch, Joan

AU - Huebinger, Ryan

AU - Xiao, Guanghua

AU - Svetlik, Doris

AU - Werry, Amy

AU - Smith, Janet

AU - Royall, Donald

AU - Palmer, Raymond

AU - Polk, Marsha

PY - 2014/11/7

Y1 - 2014/11/7

N2 - Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a major factor in nursing home placement and a primary cause of stress for caregivers. Elevated cholesterol has been linked to psychiatric disorders and has been shown to be a risk factor for AD and to impact disease progression. The present study investigated the relationship between cholesterol and NPS in AD.Methods: Data on cholesterol and NPS from 220 individuals (144 females, 76 males) with mild-to-moderate AD from the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium (TARCC) cohort were analyzed. The total number of NPS and symptoms of hyperactivity, psychosis, affect and apathy were evaluated. Groups based on total cholesterol (TC; ≥ 200 vs. <200 mg/dl) were compared with regard to NPS. The impact of gender was also assessed.Results: Individuals with high TC had lower MMSE scores as well as significantly more NPS and more symptoms of psychosis. When stratified by gender, males with high TC had significantly more NPS than females with high TC or than males or females with low TC.Conclusion: The role of elevated cholesterol in the occurrence of NPS in AD appears to be gender and symptom specific. A cross-validation of these findings will have implications for possible treatment interventions, especially for males with high TC.

AB - Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a major factor in nursing home placement and a primary cause of stress for caregivers. Elevated cholesterol has been linked to psychiatric disorders and has been shown to be a risk factor for AD and to impact disease progression. The present study investigated the relationship between cholesterol and NPS in AD.Methods: Data on cholesterol and NPS from 220 individuals (144 females, 76 males) with mild-to-moderate AD from the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium (TARCC) cohort were analyzed. The total number of NPS and symptoms of hyperactivity, psychosis, affect and apathy were evaluated. Groups based on total cholesterol (TC; ≥ 200 vs. <200 mg/dl) were compared with regard to NPS. The impact of gender was also assessed.Results: Individuals with high TC had lower MMSE scores as well as significantly more NPS and more symptoms of psychosis. When stratified by gender, males with high TC had significantly more NPS than females with high TC or than males or females with low TC.Conclusion: The role of elevated cholesterol in the occurrence of NPS in AD appears to be gender and symptom specific. A cross-validation of these findings will have implications for possible treatment interventions, especially for males with high TC.

KW - Alzheimer's disease

KW - Cholesterol

KW - Neuropsychiatric symptoms

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U2 - 10.1159/000361043

DO - 10.1159/000361043

M3 - Article

C2 - 25011444

AN - SCOPUS:84903855800

VL - 38

SP - 300

EP - 309

JO - Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

JF - Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

SN - 1420-8008

ER -