Toll-like receptors in the vascular system: Sensing the dangers within

Styliani Goulopoulou, Cameron G. McCarthy, R. Clinton Webb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

160 Scopus citations


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are components of the innate immune system that respond to exogenous infectious ligands (pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs) and endogenous molecules that are released during host tissue injury/death (damageassociated molecular patterns, DAMPs). Interaction of TLRs with their ligands leads to activation of downstream signaling pathways that induce an immune response by producing inflammatory cytokines, type Iinterferons (IFN), and other inflammatory mediators. TLRactivation affects vascular function and remodeling,0 and these molecular events prime antigen-specific.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)142-167
Number of pages26
JournalPharmacological Reviews
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2016


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