Purpose: To detail the location and area of specific ligament attachments on the 3-dimensional (3-D) surface morphology of the individual carpal bones. Methods: We describe the attachment regions of both extrinsic and intrinsic intercarpal ligaments by using a combination of detailed dissection, computed tomography imaging, and a 3-D digitization technique and provide detailed information about ligament attachments around the lunate. Results: The length, width, and thickness of each ligament are described in millimeters and its area of attachment is given in square millimeters and as a percentage of the bone surface and/or total ligament attachment area. The attachment sites of the ligaments also are shown visually on 3-D images of the bones. Conclusions: This study improves the knowledge and understanding of carpal ligament anatomy, which can result in better intraoperative assessment of ligament integrity/disruption and allow more accurate and anatomic repair, reattachment, and/or reconstruction of carpal ligaments for the treatment of carpal instability.
- Proximal carpal bones