Three-dimensional description of ligamentous attachments around the lunate

Soya Nagao, Rita M. Patterson, William L. Buford, Clark R. Andersen, Munir A. Shah, Steven F. Viegas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


Purpose: To detail the location and area of specific ligament attachments on the 3-dimensional (3-D) surface morphology of the individual carpal bones. Methods: We describe the attachment regions of both extrinsic and intrinsic intercarpal ligaments by using a combination of detailed dissection, computed tomography imaging, and a 3-D digitization technique and provide detailed information about ligament attachments around the lunate. Results: The length, width, and thickness of each ligament are described in millimeters and its area of attachment is given in square millimeters and as a percentage of the bone surface and/or total ligament attachment area. The attachment sites of the ligaments also are shown visually on 3-D images of the bones. Conclusions: This study improves the knowledge and understanding of carpal ligament anatomy, which can result in better intraoperative assessment of ligament integrity/disruption and allow more accurate and anatomic repair, reattachment, and/or reconstruction of carpal ligaments for the treatment of carpal instability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)685-692
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Hand Surgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2005


  • Anatomy
  • Attachment
  • Ligament
  • Lunate
  • Proximal carpal bones


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