Threats of Zika virus transmission for Asia and its Hindu-Kush Himalayan region

Meghnath Dhimal, Sushma Dahal, Mandira Lamichhane Dhimal, Shiva Raj Mishra, Khem B. Karki, Krishna Kumar Aryal, Ubydul Haque, Md Iqbal Kabir, Pradeep Guin, Azeem Mehmood Butt, Harapan Harapan, Qi Yong Liu, Cordia Chu, Doreen Montag, David Alexander Groneberg, Basu Dev Pandey, Ulrich Kuch, Ruth Müller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Asia and its Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is particularly vulnerable to environmental change, especially climate and land use changes further influenced by rapid population growth, high level of poverty and unsustainable development. Asia has been a hotspot of dengue fever and chikungunya mainly due to its dense human population, unplanned urbanization and poverty. In an urban cycle, dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes which are also competent vectors of Zika virus (ZIKV). Over the last decade, DENV and CHIKV transmissions by Ae. aegypti have extended to the Himalayan countries of Bhutan and Nepal and ZIKV could follow in the footsteps of these viruses in the HKH region. The already established distribution of human-biting Aedes mosquito vectors and a naïve population with lack of immunity against ZIKV places the HKH region at a higher risk of ZIKV. Some of the countries in the HKH region have already reported ZIKV cases. We have documented an increasing threat of ZIKV in Asia and its HKH region because of the high abundance and wide distribution of human-biting mosquito vectors, climate change, poverty, report of indigenous cases in the region, increasing numbers of imported cases and a naïve population with lack of immunity against ZIKV. An outbreak anywhere is potentially a threat everywhere. Therefore, in order to ensure international health security, all efforts to prevent, detect, and respond to ZIKV ought to be intensified now in Asia and its HKH region. To prepare for possible ZIKV outbreaks, Asia and the HKH region can also learn from the success stories and strategies adopted by other regions and countries in preventing ZIKV and associated complications. The future control strategies for DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV should be considered in tandem with the threat to human well-being that is posed by other emerging and re-emerging vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, and by the continuing urgent need to strengthen public primary healthcare systems in the region.

Original languageEnglish
Article number40
JournalInfectious Diseases of Poverty
Volume7
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 May 2018

Fingerprint

Chikungunya virus
Dengue Virus
Poverty
Aedes
Climate Change
Disease Outbreaks
Immunity
Bhutan
Zika Virus
Population
Nepal
Urbanization
Dengue
Population Growth
Zoonoses
Culicidae
Primary Health Care
Viruses
Delivery of Health Care
Health

Keywords

  • Aedes aegypti
  • Aedes albopictus
  • Chikungunya virus
  • Dengue virus
  • Hindu Kush Himalayas
  • Mountain
  • Poverty, Zika virus

Cite this

Dhimal, M., Dahal, S., Dhimal, M. L., Mishra, S. R., Karki, K. B., Aryal, K. K., ... Müller, R. (2018). Threats of Zika virus transmission for Asia and its Hindu-Kush Himalayan region. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 7(1), [40]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40249-018-0426-3
Dhimal, Meghnath ; Dahal, Sushma ; Dhimal, Mandira Lamichhane ; Mishra, Shiva Raj ; Karki, Khem B. ; Aryal, Krishna Kumar ; Haque, Ubydul ; Kabir, Md Iqbal ; Guin, Pradeep ; Butt, Azeem Mehmood ; Harapan, Harapan ; Liu, Qi Yong ; Chu, Cordia ; Montag, Doreen ; Groneberg, David Alexander ; Pandey, Basu Dev ; Kuch, Ulrich ; Müller, Ruth. / Threats of Zika virus transmission for Asia and its Hindu-Kush Himalayan region. In: Infectious Diseases of Poverty. 2018 ; Vol. 7, No. 1.
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title = "Threats of Zika virus transmission for Asia and its Hindu-Kush Himalayan region",
abstract = "Asia and its Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is particularly vulnerable to environmental change, especially climate and land use changes further influenced by rapid population growth, high level of poverty and unsustainable development. Asia has been a hotspot of dengue fever and chikungunya mainly due to its dense human population, unplanned urbanization and poverty. In an urban cycle, dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes which are also competent vectors of Zika virus (ZIKV). Over the last decade, DENV and CHIKV transmissions by Ae. aegypti have extended to the Himalayan countries of Bhutan and Nepal and ZIKV could follow in the footsteps of these viruses in the HKH region. The already established distribution of human-biting Aedes mosquito vectors and a na{\"i}ve population with lack of immunity against ZIKV places the HKH region at a higher risk of ZIKV. Some of the countries in the HKH region have already reported ZIKV cases. We have documented an increasing threat of ZIKV in Asia and its HKH region because of the high abundance and wide distribution of human-biting mosquito vectors, climate change, poverty, report of indigenous cases in the region, increasing numbers of imported cases and a na{\"i}ve population with lack of immunity against ZIKV. An outbreak anywhere is potentially a threat everywhere. Therefore, in order to ensure international health security, all efforts to prevent, detect, and respond to ZIKV ought to be intensified now in Asia and its HKH region. To prepare for possible ZIKV outbreaks, Asia and the HKH region can also learn from the success stories and strategies adopted by other regions and countries in preventing ZIKV and associated complications. The future control strategies for DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV should be considered in tandem with the threat to human well-being that is posed by other emerging and re-emerging vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, and by the continuing urgent need to strengthen public primary healthcare systems in the region.",
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author = "Meghnath Dhimal and Sushma Dahal and Dhimal, {Mandira Lamichhane} and Mishra, {Shiva Raj} and Karki, {Khem B.} and Aryal, {Krishna Kumar} and Ubydul Haque and Kabir, {Md Iqbal} and Pradeep Guin and Butt, {Azeem Mehmood} and Harapan Harapan and Liu, {Qi Yong} and Cordia Chu and Doreen Montag and Groneberg, {David Alexander} and Pandey, {Basu Dev} and Ulrich Kuch and Ruth M{\"u}ller",
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Dhimal, M, Dahal, S, Dhimal, ML, Mishra, SR, Karki, KB, Aryal, KK, Haque, U, Kabir, MI, Guin, P, Butt, AM, Harapan, H, Liu, QY, Chu, C, Montag, D, Groneberg, DA, Pandey, BD, Kuch, U & Müller, R 2018, 'Threats of Zika virus transmission for Asia and its Hindu-Kush Himalayan region' Infectious Diseases of Poverty, vol. 7, no. 1, 40. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40249-018-0426-3

Threats of Zika virus transmission for Asia and its Hindu-Kush Himalayan region. / Dhimal, Meghnath; Dahal, Sushma; Dhimal, Mandira Lamichhane; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Karki, Khem B.; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Haque, Ubydul; Kabir, Md Iqbal; Guin, Pradeep; Butt, Azeem Mehmood; Harapan, Harapan; Liu, Qi Yong; Chu, Cordia; Montag, Doreen; Groneberg, David Alexander; Pandey, Basu Dev; Kuch, Ulrich; Müller, Ruth.

In: Infectious Diseases of Poverty, Vol. 7, No. 1, 40, 15.05.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Threats of Zika virus transmission for Asia and its Hindu-Kush Himalayan region

AU - Dhimal, Meghnath

AU - Dahal, Sushma

AU - Dhimal, Mandira Lamichhane

AU - Mishra, Shiva Raj

AU - Karki, Khem B.

AU - Aryal, Krishna Kumar

AU - Haque, Ubydul

AU - Kabir, Md Iqbal

AU - Guin, Pradeep

AU - Butt, Azeem Mehmood

AU - Harapan, Harapan

AU - Liu, Qi Yong

AU - Chu, Cordia

AU - Montag, Doreen

AU - Groneberg, David Alexander

AU - Pandey, Basu Dev

AU - Kuch, Ulrich

AU - Müller, Ruth

PY - 2018/5/15

Y1 - 2018/5/15

N2 - Asia and its Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is particularly vulnerable to environmental change, especially climate and land use changes further influenced by rapid population growth, high level of poverty and unsustainable development. Asia has been a hotspot of dengue fever and chikungunya mainly due to its dense human population, unplanned urbanization and poverty. In an urban cycle, dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes which are also competent vectors of Zika virus (ZIKV). Over the last decade, DENV and CHIKV transmissions by Ae. aegypti have extended to the Himalayan countries of Bhutan and Nepal and ZIKV could follow in the footsteps of these viruses in the HKH region. The already established distribution of human-biting Aedes mosquito vectors and a naïve population with lack of immunity against ZIKV places the HKH region at a higher risk of ZIKV. Some of the countries in the HKH region have already reported ZIKV cases. We have documented an increasing threat of ZIKV in Asia and its HKH region because of the high abundance and wide distribution of human-biting mosquito vectors, climate change, poverty, report of indigenous cases in the region, increasing numbers of imported cases and a naïve population with lack of immunity against ZIKV. An outbreak anywhere is potentially a threat everywhere. Therefore, in order to ensure international health security, all efforts to prevent, detect, and respond to ZIKV ought to be intensified now in Asia and its HKH region. To prepare for possible ZIKV outbreaks, Asia and the HKH region can also learn from the success stories and strategies adopted by other regions and countries in preventing ZIKV and associated complications. The future control strategies for DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV should be considered in tandem with the threat to human well-being that is posed by other emerging and re-emerging vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, and by the continuing urgent need to strengthen public primary healthcare systems in the region.

AB - Asia and its Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is particularly vulnerable to environmental change, especially climate and land use changes further influenced by rapid population growth, high level of poverty and unsustainable development. Asia has been a hotspot of dengue fever and chikungunya mainly due to its dense human population, unplanned urbanization and poverty. In an urban cycle, dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes which are also competent vectors of Zika virus (ZIKV). Over the last decade, DENV and CHIKV transmissions by Ae. aegypti have extended to the Himalayan countries of Bhutan and Nepal and ZIKV could follow in the footsteps of these viruses in the HKH region. The already established distribution of human-biting Aedes mosquito vectors and a naïve population with lack of immunity against ZIKV places the HKH region at a higher risk of ZIKV. Some of the countries in the HKH region have already reported ZIKV cases. We have documented an increasing threat of ZIKV in Asia and its HKH region because of the high abundance and wide distribution of human-biting mosquito vectors, climate change, poverty, report of indigenous cases in the region, increasing numbers of imported cases and a naïve population with lack of immunity against ZIKV. An outbreak anywhere is potentially a threat everywhere. Therefore, in order to ensure international health security, all efforts to prevent, detect, and respond to ZIKV ought to be intensified now in Asia and its HKH region. To prepare for possible ZIKV outbreaks, Asia and the HKH region can also learn from the success stories and strategies adopted by other regions and countries in preventing ZIKV and associated complications. The future control strategies for DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV should be considered in tandem with the threat to human well-being that is posed by other emerging and re-emerging vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, and by the continuing urgent need to strengthen public primary healthcare systems in the region.

KW - Aedes aegypti

KW - Aedes albopictus

KW - Chikungunya virus

KW - Dengue virus

KW - Hindu Kush Himalayas

KW - Mountain

KW - Poverty, Zika virus

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