Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an important role in cancer growth, self-renewal, metastasis, recurrence and radio/chemotherapy. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this review, we explore the roles of CSCs in cancer’s relapse and progression and discuss the biomarkers of CSCs to predict clinical outcome and their diagnostic potential. The different approaches of CSC therapies are also reviewed, including cytotoxic, radiation, differentiation and targeting signaling pathways. We also discuss the challenge of targeting CSCs in cancer therapy. In addition, non-coding RNAs in CSC therapies are also discussed.
- Cancer stem cells
- Epithelial–mesenchymal transition
- Signaling pathway