The inflammatory response is an unavoidable process and contributes to the destruction of cerebral tissue during the acute ischemic stroke (AIS) phase and has not been addressed fully to date. Insightful understanding of correlation of inflammatory mediators and stroke outcome may provide new biomarkers or therapeutic approaches for ischemic stroke. Here, we prospectively recruited 180 first-ever AIS patients within 72 hrs after stroke onset. We used the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) to quantify stroke severity and modified Rankin scale (mRS) to assess the 3-month outcome for AIS patients. Initially, we screened 35 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in sera from 75 AIS patients and control subjects. Cytokines that were of interest were further investigated in the 180 AIS patients and 14 heathy controls. We found that IL-1RA, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, IL-15, EGF, G-CSF, Flt-3L, GM-CSF and Fractalkine levels were significantly decreased in severe stroke patients. In particular, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-9, IL-10, IL-15, G-CSF and GM-CSF were significantly reduced in AIS patients with poor outcome, compared to those with good prognosis. IL-6 was notably higher in the poor outcome group. Only IL-9 level decreased in the large infarct volume group. After adjusting for confounders, we found that IL-5 was an independent protective factor for prognosis in AIS patients with an adjusted OR of 0.042 (P = 0.007), whereas IL-6 was an independent risk predictor for AIS patients with an adjusted OR of 1.293 (P = 0.003). Our study suggests the levels of serum cytokines are related to stroke severity, short-term prognosis and cerebral infarct volume in AIS patients.
- Acute ischemic stroke
- Stroke severity