The efficacy of novel anatomical sites for the assessment of muscle oxygenation during central hypovolemia

Justin D. Sprick, Babs R. Soller, Caroline A. Rickards

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Muscle tissue oxygenation (SmO2) can track central blood volume loss associated with hemorrhage. Traditional peripheral measurement sites (e.g., forearm) may not be practical due to excessive movement or injury (e.g., amputation). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three novel anatomical sites for the assessment of SmO2 under progressive central hypovolemia. 10 male volunteers were exposed to stepwise prone lower body negative pressure to decrease central blood volume, while SmO2 was assessed at four sites—the traditional site of the flexor carpi ulnaris (ARM), and three novel sites not previously investigated during lower body negative pressure, the deltoid, latissimus dorsi, and trapezius. SmO2 at the novel sites was compared to the ARM sensor and to stroke volume responses. A reduction in SmO2 was detected by the ARM sensor at the first level of lower body negative pressure (−15 mmHg; P = 0.007), and at −30 (the deltoid), −45 (latissimus dorsi), and −60 mmHg lower body negative pressure (trapezius) at the novel sites (P ≤ 0.04). SmO2 responses at all novel sites were correlated with responses at the ARM (R ≥ 0.89), and tracked the reduction in stroke volume (R ≥ 0.87); the latissimus dorsi site exhibited the strongest linear correlations (R ≥ 0.96). Of the novel sensor sites, the latissimus dorsi exhibited the strongest linear associations with SmO2 at the ARM, and with reductions in central blood volume. These findings have important implications for detection of hemorrhage in austere environments (e.g., combat) when use of a peripheral sensor may not be ideal, and may facilitate incorporation of these sensors into uniforms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2007-2013
Number of pages7
JournalExperimental Biology and Medicine
Issue number17
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2016


  • Trauma
  • hypovolemia
  • near infrared spectroscopy
  • physiologic monitoring
  • tissue oxygen saturation


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