We have investigated the filtering effects of three types of air control systems of enclosed structures on viable particles in the ambient air. Aspergillus fumigatus and other thermophilic organisms were used as monitors for viable particles. The indoor concentrations of viable particles were found to be affected by building design and the use of conventional mechanical air systems. Viable particles of approximately 4.0 μm and greater in aerodynamic diameter were filtered from the air while respirable size particles less than 4.0 μm were not filtered as well. There was evidence of growth of viable particles within the mechanical air systems. Conventional air control systems may not be adequate for the control of viable particle contamination of the indoor environment without modifications and proper maintenance.