The biopsychosocial model has been demonstrated to be the most heuristic approach to chronic pain assessment, prevention, and treatment. Currently, this model also provides the best foundation for tailoring the most comprehensive pain management program for each specific patient. Chronic pain patients have an increased risk for developing deficits in physical functioning, emotional reactivity, and cognition. Interdisciplinary treatment, based on the biopsychosocial model, is vital to address these multifaceted issues facing chronic pain sufferers. These interdisciplinary pain management strategies have progressed with advancements in science and technology in an attempt to provide the best possible outcomes for pain patients. However, while research has made enormous advances, there are still some clinical research gaps to be addressed. This article will begin with a historical overview of pain management in order to demonstrate the evolution in theory from ancient practices to the modern biopsychosocial model. Additionally, functional restoration and other early interdisciplinary intervention programs will be highlighted for their importance and effectiveness in chronic pain management, assessment, and prevention.
- Biomedical model
- Chronic low back pain (CLBP)
- Early intervention
- Temporomandibular joint and muscle disorder (TMJMD)