The 4th dimension and adult stem cells: Can timing be everything?

Jeffrey M. Gimble, Z. Elizabeth Floyd, Bruce A. Bunnell

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


The rotation of the earth on its axis influences the physiology of all organisms. A highly conserved set of genes encoding the core circadian regulatory proteins (CCRP) has evolved across species. The CCRP acts through transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms to direct the oscillatory expression of genes essential for key metabolic events. In addition to the light:dark cycle, the CCRP expression can be entrained by changes in feeding and physical activity patterns. While mammalian CCRP were originally associated with the central clock located within the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain, there is a growing body of evidence documenting the presence of the CCRP in peripheral tissues. It is now evident that the CCRP play a role in regulating the proliferation, differentiation, and function of adult stem cells in multiple organs. This concise review highlights findings concerning the role of the CCRP in modulating the adult stem cell activities. Although the manuscript focuses on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and cancer stem cells, it is likely that the contribution of the CCRP merits consideration and evaluation in all stem cell pathways.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)569-578
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Cellular Biochemistry
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2009


  • Adipose-derived stem cell
  • Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell
  • Cancer stem cell
  • Circadian
  • Hematopoietic stem cell


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