OBJECTIVE: To review the use of testosterone for the prevention of bone loss in men with HIV infection. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search (1966-May 2002) on the use of testosterone in osteoporosis/HIV infection was performed. A reference bibliography search was also completed. DATA SYNTHESIS: Osteopenia/osteoporosis is reported in HIV-infected men due to a myriad of factors. Sex hormone deficiency is a frequent endocrine abnormality in this population. CONCLUSIONS: In HIV-negative men, testosterone may be beneficial for preventing bone loss and hastening the resolution of fractures. Testosterone's role in preventing bone loss in HIV-infected men remains to be defined.