Chronic elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor associated with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), a common form of progressive optic neuropathy that can lead to debilitating loss of vision. Recent studies have identified the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of IOP, and as a result, several therapeutic ventures are currently targeting enhancement of NO signaling in the eye. Although a low level of NO is important for ocular physiology, excess exogenous NO can be detrimental. Therefore, the ability to directly measure NO in real time is essential for determining the role of NO signaling in glaucomatous pathophysiology. Historically, NO activity in human tissues has been determined by indirect methods that measure levels of NO metabolites (nitrate/ nitrite) or downstream components of the NO signaling pathway (cGMP). In this proof-of-concept work, we assess the feasibility of direct, real-time measurement of NO in ex vivo cultured human corneoscleral segments using electrochemistry. A NO-selective electrode (ISO-NOPF200) paired to a free radical analyzer (TBR1025) was placed on the trabecular meshwork (TM) rim for real-time measurement of NO released from cells. Exogenous NO produced within cells was measured after treatment of corneoscleral segments with esterase-dependent NO-donor O2-acetoxymethylated diazeniumdiolate (DETA-NONOate/AM; 20 μM) and latanoprostene bunod (5–20 μM). A fluorescent NO-binding dye DAF-FM (4-Amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate) was used for validation. A linear relationship was observed between the electric currents measured by the NO-sensing electrode and the NO standard concentrations, establishing a robust calibration curve. Treatment of ex vivo cultured human donor corneoscleral segments with DETA-NONOate/AM and latanoprostene bunod led to a significant increase in NO production compared with vehicle-treated controls, as detected electrochemically. Furthermore, the DAF-FM fluorescence intensity was higher in outflow pathway tissues of corneoscleral segments treated with DETA-NONOate/AM and latanoprostene bunod compared with vehicle-treated controls. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that NO-sensing electrodes can be used to directly measure NO levels in real time from the tissues of the outflow pathway.
|Number of pages||11|
|State||Published - 2020|