We used cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) to identify differences in macromolecular structures present in the serum from healthy individuals (HI) and prostate cancer (PCa) patients and show that these differences are potential markers for disease. Using a murine orthotopic model of human PCa, we determined that some of these structural markers in serum are associated with the tumour burden. These findings signify the potential of this nanoscale ex vivo imaging technology of body fluids as a platform for discovering early markers of PCa and other diseases.
- prostate cancer
- secreted macromolecules