Overwhelming evidence now shows that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (ie, statins) are safe and effective in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis, the primary cause of heart disease, is directly and independently related to hypercholesterolemia and inflammation, and statins have multiple and independent effects on these conditions. New evidence for the use of statins in neurologic disease is mounting, and the range of therapeutic applications is formidable. Statins are beginning to show benefits in a wide range of neurologic conditions, from common ischemic stroke to rare congenital neurometabolic storage diseases, from acute brain injury to chronic central nervous system inflammation, and from prevention of neurodegenerative disease to acute neuroprotection. A diverse therapeutic spectrum is explained by shared pathogenetic mechanisms of neurologic disease and the manifold pharmacodynamic effects of statins.