Stakeholders’ perspectives on system-level barriers to and facilitators of HPV vaccination among Hispanic migrant farmworkers

Cheryl A. Vamos, Nolan Kline, Coralia Vázquez-Otero, Elizabeth A. Lockhart, Paige W. Lake, Kristi J. Wells, Sara Proctor, Cathy D. Meade, Ellen M. Daley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Latinx populations suffer from a disproportionate burden of HPV-related cancers, yet vaccination completion rates nationally among this population remain low, with 46% of females and 35% of males completing the vaccine series. Given the heterogeneity of Latinx populations, sub-populations such as Latinx individuals who live in migrant farmworker communities experience additional system-level barriers to healthcare utilization. Thus, we examined stakeholder perceptions of barriers and facilitators to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among Latinx migrant farmworkers. Such information is critical to informing intervention development targeting vaccination uptake and completion, ultimately decreasing HPV-related cancer disparities. Design: Guided by the PRECEDE-PROCEED model and the Social Ecological Model (SEM), interviews were conducted with diverse stakeholders (n = 13) representative of health, social services, and political sectors. Stakeholders were asked about their perceptions of barriers to and facilitators of HPV vaccination among migrant farmworkers. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed. Responses were coded according to components of the SEM. Results: Micro-level facilitators identified included positive attitudes and vaccine acceptance among parents. Meso-level facilitators included availability of free or low-cost health care clinics, and macro-level facilitators included federal programs (e.g. Medicaid, Vaccine for Children). Micro-level barriers included lack of education and low health literacy. Meso-level barriers included poor patient-provider communication, lack of access (e.g. clinics not stocking/administering the vaccine; limited clinic hours; lack of reminder systems; insufficient organizational structure), public perceptions/attitudes towards HPV vaccination, and lack of healthcare service continuity due to migratory patterns. Macro-level barriers included public perceptions and attitudes towards HPV vaccination, transportation, vaccine availability and coverage for non-citizens, and lack of school entry policy. Conclusions: Findings suggest that multi-level interventions should be developed to leverage existing facilitators while addressing system-level barriers, ultimately creating a supportive environment for HPV vaccine initiation and completion among this marginalized population comprised of individuals living in migrant farmworker communities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1442-1464
Number of pages23
JournalEthnicity and Health
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2022


  • cervical cancer
  • health disparities
  • HPV vaccination
  • migrant farmworkers
  • social ecological model


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