Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH), the enzyme responsible for degradation of vasoactive epoxides, protects against cerebral ischemia in rats. However, the molecular and biological mechanisms that confer protection in normotension and hypertension remain unclear. Here we show that 6 weeks of SEH inhibition via 2 mg/day of 12-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido) dodecanoic acid (AUDA) in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone (SHRSP) rats protects against cerebral ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion, reducing percent hemispheric infarct and neurodeficit score without decreasing blood pressure. This level of cerebral protection was similar to that of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, which significantly lowered blood pressure. SEH inhibition is also protective in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, reducing both hemispheric infarct and neurodeficit score. In SHRSP rats, SEH inhibition reduced wall-to-lumen ratio and collagen deposition and increased cerebral microvessel density, although AUDA did not alter middle cerebral artery structure or microvessel density in WKY rats. An apoptosis mRNA expression microarray of brain tissues from AUDA-treated rats revealed that AUDA modulates gene expression of mediators involved in the regulation of apoptosis in neural tissues of both WKY and SHRSP rats. Hence, we conclude that chronic SEH inhibition protects against cerebral ischemia via vascular protection in SHRSP rats and neural protection in both the SHRSP and WKY rats, indicating that SEH inhibition has broad pharmacological potential for treating ischemic stroke.