Silver Fractal-like Structures for Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence: Enhanced Fluorescence Intensities and Increased Probe Photostabilities

Chris D. Geddes, Alexandr Parfenov, David Roll, Ignacy Gryczynski, Joanna Malicka, Joseph R. Lakowicz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

68 Scopus citations


Substantial increases in fluorescence emission from fluorophore-protein-coated fractal-like silver structures have been observed. We review two methods for silver fractal structure preparation, which have been employed and studied. The first, a roughened silver electrode, typically yielded a 100-fold increase in fluorophore emission, and the second, silver fractal-like structures grown on glass between two silver electrodes, produced a ≈500-fold increase. In addition, significant increases in probe photostability were observed for probes coated on the silver fractal like structures. These results further serve to compliment our recent work on the effects of nobel metal particles with fluorophores, a relatively new phenomenon in fluorescence we have termed both "metal-enhanced fluorescence" and "radiative decay engineering", These results are explained by the metallic surfaces modifying the radiative decay rate (Γ) of the fluorescent labels. We believe that this new silver-surface preparation, which results in ultrabright and photostable fluorophores, offers a new generic technology platform for increased fluorescence signal levels, with widespread potential applications to the analytical sciences, imaging, and medical diagnostics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)267-276
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Fluorescence
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 May 2003



  • Fractal silver structures
  • Increased photostabilities
  • Metal-enhanced fluorescence
  • Radiative decay engineering

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