Introduction: Observational multimodal neuroimaging studies indicate sex differences in Alzheimer's disease pathophysiological markers. Methods: Positron emission tomography brain amyloid load, neurodegeneration (hippocampus and basal forebrain volumes adjusted to total intracranial volume, cortical thickness, and 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-D-glucose–positron emission tomography metabolism), and brain resting-state functional connectivity were analyzed in 318 cognitively intact older adults from the INSIGHT-preAD cohort (female n = 201, male n = 117). A linear mixed-effects model was performed to investigate sex effects and sex∗apolipoprotein E genotype interaction on each marker as well as sex∗amyloid group interaction for non-amyloid markers. Results: Men compared with women showed higher anterior cingulate cortex amyloid load (P =.009), glucose hypometabolism in the precuneus (P =.027), posterior cingulate (P <.001) and inferior parietal (P =.043) cortices, and lower resting-state functional connectivity in the default mode network (P =.024). No brain volumetric markers showed differences between men and women. Sex∗apolipoprotein E genotype and sex∗amyloid status interactions were not significant. Discussion: Our findings suggest that cognitively intact older men compared with women have higher resilience to pathophysiological processes of Alzheimer's disease.
- Alzheimer's disease
- Basal forebrain
- Cognitively intact older individuals
- Cortical thickness