Salivary Exosomes in Health and Disease: Future Prospects in the Eye

Angela Liu, Brenna Hefley, Paulina Escandon, Sarah E. Nicholas, Dimitrios Karamichos

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Exosomes are a group of vesicles that package and transport DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids to recipient cells. They can be derived from blood, saliva, urine, and/or other biological tissues. Their impact on several diseases, such as neurodegenerative, autoimmune, and ocular diseases, have been reported, but not fully unraveled. The exosomes that are derived from saliva are less studied, but offer significant advantages over exosomes from other sources, due to their accessibility and ease of collection. Thus, their role in the pathophysiology of diseases is largely unknown. In the context of ocular diseases, salivary exosomes have been under-utilized, thus creating an enormous gap in the literature. The current review discusses the state of exosomes research on systemic and ocular diseases and highlights the role and potential of salivary exosomes as future ocular therapeutic vehicles.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6363
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number7
StatePublished - Apr 2023


  • angiogenesis
  • biomarker
  • exosomes
  • inflammatory cytokines
  • ocular disease
  • salivary exosomes
  • wound healing


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