Role of nitric oxide in cardiovascular adaptation to intermittent hypoxia

Eugenia B. Manukhina, H. Fred Downey, Robert T. Mallet

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

114 Scopus citations


Hypoxia is one of the most frequently encountered stresses in health and disease. The duration, frequency, and severity of hypoxic episodes are critical factors determining whether hypoxia is beneficial or harmful. Adaptation to intermittent hypoxia has been demonstrated to confer cardiovascular protection against more severe and sustained hypoxia, and, moreover, to protect against other stresses, including ischemia. Thus, the direct and cross protective effects of adaptation to intermittent hypoxia have been used for treatment and prevention of a variety of diseases and to increase efficiency of exercise training. Evidence is mounting that nitric oxide (NO) plays a central role in these adaptive mechanisms. NO-dependent protective mechanisms activated by intermittent hypoxia include stimulation of NO synthesis as well as restriction of NO overproduction. In addition, alternative, nonenzymic sources of NO and negative feedback of NO synthesis are important factors in optimizing NO concentrations. The adaptive enhancement of NO synthesis and/or availability activates or increases expression of other protective factors, including heat shock proteins, antioxidants and prostaglandins, making the protection more robust and sustained. Understanding the role of NO in mechanisms of adaptation to hypoxia will support development of therapies to prevent and treat hypoxic or ischemic damage to organs and cells and to increase adaptive capabilities of the organism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)343-365
Number of pages23
JournalExperimental Biology and Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2006


  • Cardioprotection
  • Hemoglobin
  • Ischemia/reperfusion damage
  • Nitric oxide stores
  • Nitric oxide synthase
  • Peroxynitrite


Dive into the research topics of 'Role of nitric oxide in cardiovascular adaptation to intermittent hypoxia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this