Reactive species produced in the cell during normal cellular metabolism can chemically react with cellular biomolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, thereby causing their oxidative modifications leading to alterations in their compositions and potential damage to their cellular activities. Fortunately, cells have evolved several antioxidant defense mechanisms (as metabolites, vitamins, and enzymes) to neutralize or mitigate the harmful effect of reactive species and/or their byproducts. Any perturbation in the balance in the level of antioxidants and the reactive species results in a physiological condition called "oxidative stress." A catalase is one of the crucial antioxidant enzymes that mitigates oxidative stress to a considerable extent by destroying cellular hydrogen peroxide to produce water and oxygen. Deficiency or malfunction of catalase is postulated to be related to the pathogenesis of many age-associated degenerative diseases like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, anemia, vitiligo, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, bipolar disorder, cancer, and schizophrenia. Therefore, efforts are being undertaken in many laboratories to explore its use as a potential drug for the treatment of such diseases. This paper describes the direct and indirect involvement of deficiency and/or modification of catalase in the pathogenesis of some important diseases such as diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, vitiligo, and acatalasemia. Details on the efforts exploring the potential treatment of these diseases using a catalase as a protein therapeutic agent have also been described.