Risk of nondherence to diabetes medications among medicare advantage enrollees: Development of a validated risk prediction tool

Shivani K. Mhatre, Omar Serna, Shubhada Sansgiry, Marc L. Fleming, E. James Essien, Sujit S. Sansgiry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Low adherence to oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) in the Medicare population can greatly reduce Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) star ratings for managed care organizations (MCOs). OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a risk assessment tool (Prescription Medication Adherence Prediction Tool for Diabetes Medications [RxAPT-D]) to predict nonadherence to OADs using Medicare claims data. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, claims data for members enrolled in a Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug (MA-PD) program in Houston, Texas, were used. Data from 2012 (baseline period) were used to identify key variables to predict adherence in 2013 (follow-up period). Members aged 65 years and older with a diabetes diagnosis, at least 1 prescription for OADs (biguanides, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, or meglitinides), and continuously enrolled for both years were included in the study. Patients with insulin prescriptions were excluded from the cohort. The study outcome, nonadherence in 2013, was defined as proportion of days covered (PDC) < 80%. Multivariable logistic models using 200 bootstrap replications (with replacement) identified factors associated with nonadherence. The final model was tested for discrimination and calibration statistics and internally validated using 10-fold cross-validation. Using weighted beta coefficients of the predictors, the RxAPT-D was created to stratify nonadherence risk and was tested for sensitivity, specificity, positive prediction value, and negative prediction value. The predictive ability of the tool was compared with that of past PDC values using net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) indices. RESULTS: Data from 7,028 MA-PD members were used for tool development. Seven predictors (age, total OAD refills, total OAD classes filled, days supply of last filled OAD, pill burden, coverage of last filled OAD, and past adherence) statistically significant in ≥ 50% of the bootstrapped samples were identified from the logistic models. The final model demonstrated good discrimination (c-statistics = 0.75) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit P > 0.05) statistics, with good internal validity (area under the curve = 0.73). The RxAPT-D demonstrated adequate sensitivity statistics: sensitivity = 0.73, specificity = 0.63, positive prediction value = 0.74, and negative prediction value = 0.62. Compared with use of past adherence measures, the RxAPT-D had higher prediction ability, relative IDI = 2.09, and user defined NRI = 0.16 with 24% events correctly reclassified. CONCLUSIONS: The RxAPT is an effective tool to identify patients who are likely to become nonadherent to OADs in the follow-up year. Pharmacists in MCOs can use this tool to identify patients expected to be nonadherent to OADs and develop targeted intervention programs to assist in improving MCO CMS star ratings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1293-1301
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Managed Care and Specialty Pharmacy
Volume22
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2016

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Medicare Part C
Medical problems
Hypoglycemic Agents
Managed Care Programs
Medicare
Prescriptions
Organizations
Stars
Statistics
Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors
Biguanides
Thiazolidinediones
Aptitude
Medication Adherence
Prescription Drugs
Medicaid
Pharmacists
Risk assessment
Area Under Curve
Observational Studies

Cite this

Mhatre, Shivani K. ; Serna, Omar ; Sansgiry, Shubhada ; Fleming, Marc L. ; Essien, E. James ; Sansgiry, Sujit S. / Risk of nondherence to diabetes medications among medicare advantage enrollees : Development of a validated risk prediction tool. In: Journal of Managed Care and Specialty Pharmacy. 2016 ; Vol. 22, No. 11. pp. 1293-1301.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Low adherence to oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) in the Medicare population can greatly reduce Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) star ratings for managed care organizations (MCOs). OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a risk assessment tool (Prescription Medication Adherence Prediction Tool for Diabetes Medications [RxAPT-D]) to predict nonadherence to OADs using Medicare claims data. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, claims data for members enrolled in a Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug (MA-PD) program in Houston, Texas, were used. Data from 2012 (baseline period) were used to identify key variables to predict adherence in 2013 (follow-up period). Members aged 65 years and older with a diabetes diagnosis, at least 1 prescription for OADs (biguanides, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, or meglitinides), and continuously enrolled for both years were included in the study. Patients with insulin prescriptions were excluded from the cohort. The study outcome, nonadherence in 2013, was defined as proportion of days covered (PDC) < 80{\%}. Multivariable logistic models using 200 bootstrap replications (with replacement) identified factors associated with nonadherence. The final model was tested for discrimination and calibration statistics and internally validated using 10-fold cross-validation. Using weighted beta coefficients of the predictors, the RxAPT-D was created to stratify nonadherence risk and was tested for sensitivity, specificity, positive prediction value, and negative prediction value. The predictive ability of the tool was compared with that of past PDC values using net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) indices. RESULTS: Data from 7,028 MA-PD members were used for tool development. Seven predictors (age, total OAD refills, total OAD classes filled, days supply of last filled OAD, pill burden, coverage of last filled OAD, and past adherence) statistically significant in ≥ 50{\%} of the bootstrapped samples were identified from the logistic models. The final model demonstrated good discrimination (c-statistics = 0.75) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit P > 0.05) statistics, with good internal validity (area under the curve = 0.73). The RxAPT-D demonstrated adequate sensitivity statistics: sensitivity = 0.73, specificity = 0.63, positive prediction value = 0.74, and negative prediction value = 0.62. Compared with use of past adherence measures, the RxAPT-D had higher prediction ability, relative IDI = 2.09, and user defined NRI = 0.16 with 24{\%} events correctly reclassified. CONCLUSIONS: The RxAPT is an effective tool to identify patients who are likely to become nonadherent to OADs in the follow-up year. Pharmacists in MCOs can use this tool to identify patients expected to be nonadherent to OADs and develop targeted intervention programs to assist in improving MCO CMS star ratings.",
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Risk of nondherence to diabetes medications among medicare advantage enrollees : Development of a validated risk prediction tool. / Mhatre, Shivani K.; Serna, Omar; Sansgiry, Shubhada; Fleming, Marc L.; Essien, E. James; Sansgiry, Sujit S.

In: Journal of Managed Care and Specialty Pharmacy, Vol. 22, No. 11, 01.01.2016, p. 1293-1301.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Risk of nondherence to diabetes medications among medicare advantage enrollees

T2 - Development of a validated risk prediction tool

AU - Mhatre, Shivani K.

AU - Serna, Omar

AU - Sansgiry, Shubhada

AU - Fleming, Marc L.

AU - Essien, E. James

AU - Sansgiry, Sujit S.

PY - 2016/1/1

Y1 - 2016/1/1

N2 - BACKGROUND: Low adherence to oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) in the Medicare population can greatly reduce Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) star ratings for managed care organizations (MCOs). OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a risk assessment tool (Prescription Medication Adherence Prediction Tool for Diabetes Medications [RxAPT-D]) to predict nonadherence to OADs using Medicare claims data. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, claims data for members enrolled in a Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug (MA-PD) program in Houston, Texas, were used. Data from 2012 (baseline period) were used to identify key variables to predict adherence in 2013 (follow-up period). Members aged 65 years and older with a diabetes diagnosis, at least 1 prescription for OADs (biguanides, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, or meglitinides), and continuously enrolled for both years were included in the study. Patients with insulin prescriptions were excluded from the cohort. The study outcome, nonadherence in 2013, was defined as proportion of days covered (PDC) < 80%. Multivariable logistic models using 200 bootstrap replications (with replacement) identified factors associated with nonadherence. The final model was tested for discrimination and calibration statistics and internally validated using 10-fold cross-validation. Using weighted beta coefficients of the predictors, the RxAPT-D was created to stratify nonadherence risk and was tested for sensitivity, specificity, positive prediction value, and negative prediction value. The predictive ability of the tool was compared with that of past PDC values using net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) indices. RESULTS: Data from 7,028 MA-PD members were used for tool development. Seven predictors (age, total OAD refills, total OAD classes filled, days supply of last filled OAD, pill burden, coverage of last filled OAD, and past adherence) statistically significant in ≥ 50% of the bootstrapped samples were identified from the logistic models. The final model demonstrated good discrimination (c-statistics = 0.75) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit P > 0.05) statistics, with good internal validity (area under the curve = 0.73). The RxAPT-D demonstrated adequate sensitivity statistics: sensitivity = 0.73, specificity = 0.63, positive prediction value = 0.74, and negative prediction value = 0.62. Compared with use of past adherence measures, the RxAPT-D had higher prediction ability, relative IDI = 2.09, and user defined NRI = 0.16 with 24% events correctly reclassified. CONCLUSIONS: The RxAPT is an effective tool to identify patients who are likely to become nonadherent to OADs in the follow-up year. Pharmacists in MCOs can use this tool to identify patients expected to be nonadherent to OADs and develop targeted intervention programs to assist in improving MCO CMS star ratings.

AB - BACKGROUND: Low adherence to oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) in the Medicare population can greatly reduce Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) star ratings for managed care organizations (MCOs). OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a risk assessment tool (Prescription Medication Adherence Prediction Tool for Diabetes Medications [RxAPT-D]) to predict nonadherence to OADs using Medicare claims data. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, claims data for members enrolled in a Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug (MA-PD) program in Houston, Texas, were used. Data from 2012 (baseline period) were used to identify key variables to predict adherence in 2013 (follow-up period). Members aged 65 years and older with a diabetes diagnosis, at least 1 prescription for OADs (biguanides, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, or meglitinides), and continuously enrolled for both years were included in the study. Patients with insulin prescriptions were excluded from the cohort. The study outcome, nonadherence in 2013, was defined as proportion of days covered (PDC) < 80%. Multivariable logistic models using 200 bootstrap replications (with replacement) identified factors associated with nonadherence. The final model was tested for discrimination and calibration statistics and internally validated using 10-fold cross-validation. Using weighted beta coefficients of the predictors, the RxAPT-D was created to stratify nonadherence risk and was tested for sensitivity, specificity, positive prediction value, and negative prediction value. The predictive ability of the tool was compared with that of past PDC values using net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) indices. RESULTS: Data from 7,028 MA-PD members were used for tool development. Seven predictors (age, total OAD refills, total OAD classes filled, days supply of last filled OAD, pill burden, coverage of last filled OAD, and past adherence) statistically significant in ≥ 50% of the bootstrapped samples were identified from the logistic models. The final model demonstrated good discrimination (c-statistics = 0.75) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit P > 0.05) statistics, with good internal validity (area under the curve = 0.73). The RxAPT-D demonstrated adequate sensitivity statistics: sensitivity = 0.73, specificity = 0.63, positive prediction value = 0.74, and negative prediction value = 0.62. Compared with use of past adherence measures, the RxAPT-D had higher prediction ability, relative IDI = 2.09, and user defined NRI = 0.16 with 24% events correctly reclassified. CONCLUSIONS: The RxAPT is an effective tool to identify patients who are likely to become nonadherent to OADs in the follow-up year. Pharmacists in MCOs can use this tool to identify patients expected to be nonadherent to OADs and develop targeted intervention programs to assist in improving MCO CMS star ratings.

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