Mononuclear phagocytes (MP) and T lymphocytes play a pivotal role in the host immune response to human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV.1) infection. Regulation of such immune responses can be mediated, in part, through the interaction of the T-lymphocyte-expressed molecule CD40 ligand (CD40L) with its receptor on MP, CD40. Upregulation of CD40L on CD4+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells during advanced HIV-1 disease has previously been reported. Based on this observation, we studied the influence of CD40L-CD40 interactions on MP effector function and viral regulation in vitro. We monitored productive viral infection, cytokine and β-chemokine production, and β-chemokine receptor expression in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) after treatment with soluble CD40L. Beginning 1 day after infection and continuing at 3-day intervals, treatment with CD40L inhibited productive HIV-1 infection in MDM in a dose-dependent manner. A concomitant and marked upregulation of β-chemokines (macrophage inhibitory proteins la and 1β and RANTES [regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted]) and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was observed in HIV-1-infected and CD40L-treated MDM relative to either infected or activated MDM alone. The addition of antibodies to RANTES or TNF-α led to a partial reversal of the CD40L-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 infection. Surface expression of CD4 and the β-chemokine receptor CCR5 was reduced on MDM in response to treatment with CD40L. In addition, treatment of CCRS-and CD4-transfected 293T cells with secretory products from CD40L-stimulated MDM prior to infection with a CCR5-tropic HIV-1 reporter virus led to inhibition of viral entry. In conclusion, we demonstrate that CD40L-mediated inhibition of viral entry coincides with a broad range of MDM immune effector responses and the down-modulation of CCR5 and CD4 expression.