Rapid evolution of expression levels in hepatocellular carcinoma

Fan Zhang, Michael D. Kuo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


One interesting and important question when comparing and analysing human evolution and cancer evolution is whether cancer susceptibility is related to human evolution. Since cancer is an evolution on a small time and space scale, we compared and analysed liver gene expression data among orangutan, chimpanzee, human, nontumour tissue, and primary cancer using linear mixed model, analysis of variance (ANOVA), gene ontology (GO), and human evolution based cancer gene expression analysis. Our results revealed not only rapid evolution of expression levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) relative to the gene expression evolution rate of human, but also the correlation between human specific gene expression and cancer specific gene expression. Further gene ontology analysis also suggested statistical relationship between gene function and expression pattern might help understanding the relationship between human evolution and cancer development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)454-474
Number of pages21
JournalInternational Journal of Computational Biology and Drug Design
Issue number5-6
StatePublished - 2020


  • Biomarker discovery
  • Cancer development
  • Cancer evolution
  • Chimpanzee
  • Gene expression analysis
  • Gene ontology
  • HCC
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma
  • Orangutan
  • Pathway analysis
  • RNA-Seq


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