Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by formation of amyloid plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and cell death in the brain, resulting in progressive loss of memory and cognitive ability. Efficacy of drugs currently used for prevention and treatment of AD is limited by the fact that each drug influences only a single step of the pathogenesis in AD, and the drugs affect both damaged and normal cells. This is why major attention is now paid to nonpharmacological means that may enhance the adaptive capacity and mobilize the self-defense systems of the body. This chapter focuses on protective effects of adaptation to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia on the memory, brain neurons, and cerebral blood vessels in rats with experimental AD induced by intracerebral injections of beta-amyloid (Aß) and mechanisms of these protective effects. Special attention is paid to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia's ability to limit early stages in AD pathogenesis, such as nitrosative and oxidative stress in brain tissue. Presented data show that adaptation to hypoxia may be a promising approach to prevention and treatment of AD.