Objective To use hospital-level data from the US to determine whether private patient rooms (PPRs) are associated with fewer in hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) infections. Methods We retrospectively analyzed Texas Inpatient Public Use Data with discharges between September 2015 and August 2016 merged with American Hospital Association annual survey data. We used negative binomial regression to estimate the association between the proportion of PPRs within a hospital and the count of discharges with HA-MRSA infections, adjusting for potentially confounding variables. Results We analyzed data for 340 hospitals and 2,670,855 discharges. HA-MRSA incidence within these hospitals was 386 per 100,000 discharges (95% CI: 379, 393) and, on average, 62.73% (95% CI: 58.99, 66.46) of rooms in these hospitals were PPRs. PPRs were significantly associated with fewer HA-MRSA infections (unadjusted IRR = 0.973, 95% CI: 0.968, 0.979; adjusted IRR = 0.992, 95% CI: 0.991, 0.994; p<0.001 for both); at the hospital level, as the percentage of PPRs increased, HA-MRSA infection rates decreased. This association was non-linear; in hospitals with few PPRs there was a stronger association between PPRs and HA-MRSA infection rate relative to hospitals with many PPRs. Conclusion We identified 0.8% fewer HA-MRSA infections for each 1% increase in PPRs as a proportion of all rooms, suggesting that private rooms provide substantial protection from HAMRSA. Small changes may not induce significant improvements in HA-MRSA incidence, and hospitals seeking tangible benefits in HAI reduction likely need to markedly increase the proportion of PPRs through large-scale renovations. The effect of private rooms is disproportionate across hospitals. Hospitals with proportionately fewer PPRs stand to gain the most from adding additional PPRs, while those with an already high proportion of PPRs are unlikely to see large benefits. Our findings enable hospital administrators to consider potential patient safety benefits as they make decisions about facility design and renovation.