Preventing College Sexual Victimization by Reducing Hookups: a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Personalized Normative Feedback Intervention

Maria Testa, Jennifer A. Livingston, Weijun Wang, Melissa A. Lewis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Sexual activity, including hooking up, increases college women’s vulnerability to sexual victimization. Reducing hookups may reduce rates of sexual victimization among this vulnerable population. Because college students overestimate how frequently their peers hook up, correcting their misperceptions may lead to more accurate perceived social norms, and consequently, less hookup behavior. The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of a brief, computer-administered personalized normative feedback (PNF) intervention regarding hookups during the first semester of college. We tested an indirect effects model in which PNF was hypothesized to predict perceiving fewer peer hookups, which were expected to predict fewer actual hookups and consequently, less sexual victimization during the first semester of college. Entering first-year women (N = 760) were randomly assigned to receive web-delivered PNF or no information. At the end of the semester, perceived number of hookups of others, number of hookups during the semester, and sexual victimization experiences were assessed. Women who received the intervention perceived that their peers engaged in significantly fewer hookups than did control women. Consistent with the proposed indirect effects model, intervention had a significant indirect effect on the odds of first-semester victimization via lower perceived descriptive norms, which in turn predicted fewer hookups. The study provides proof of concept for the importance of hookups as a risk factor for sexual victimization and provides novel, preliminary support for intervention to change descriptive norms as a way of reducing hookups and consequently, sexual vulnerability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)388-397
Number of pages10
JournalPrevention Science
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2020


  • College students
  • Descriptive norms
  • Personalized feedback intervention
  • Sexual risk-taking
  • Sexual victimization


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