Preoperative endovascular brain mapping for intraoperative volumetric image guidance: Preliminary concept and feasibility in animal models

Robert A. Mericle, Erich O. Richter, Eric Eskioglu, Courtney Watkins, Laszlo Prokai, Christopher Batich, Swadeshmukul Santra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Object. The authors describe a novel concept for brain mapping in which an endovascular approach is used, and they demonstrate its feasibility in animal models. The purpose of endovascular brain mapping is to delineate clearly the nonfunctional brain parenchyma when a craniotomy is performed for resection. The nonfunctional brain will be stained with sharp visual margins, differentiating it from the functional, nonstained brain. The authors list four essential criteria for developing an ideal endovascular mapping agent, and they describe seven potential approaches for accomplishing a successful endovascular brain map. Methods. Four Sprague-Dawley rats and one New Zealand white rabbit were used to determine initial feasibility of the procedure. The animals were anesthetized, and the internal carotid artery was catheterized. Four potential brain mapping agents were infused into the right hemisphere of the five animals. Afterward, the brains were removed and each was analyzed both grossly and histologically. Fluorescein and FD&C Green No. 3 provided good visual clarity and margins, but required blood-brain barrier (BBB) manipulation. Tantalum particles enabled avoidance of BBB manipulation, but provided inadequate visual clarity, probably because of their size. A Sudan black "cocktail" provided excellent clarity and margins despite remaining in the brain capillaries. Conclusions. This is a novel application of the endovascular approach, and has broad potential for clinical neurosurgical brain mapping. The animal models in this study establish the feasibility of the procedure. However, further study is required to demonstrate safety, minimize toxicity, investigate stain durability, and improve the characteristics of potential mapping agents. The authors are planning to conduct future studies for identification of mapping agents that do not require BBB manipulation or vascular occlusion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)566-573
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Neurosurgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2006


  • Embolization
  • Endovascular brain mapping
  • Functional stereotactic neurosurgery
  • Glioblastoma multiforme
  • Rabbit
  • Rat
  • Wada test


Dive into the research topics of 'Preoperative endovascular brain mapping for intraoperative volumetric image guidance: Preliminary concept and feasibility in animal models'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this