Predicting UPDRS Motor Symptoms in Individuals With Parkinson's Disease From Force Plates Using Machine Learning

Trevor Exley, Sarah Moudy, Rita M. Patterson, Joonghyun Kim, Mark V. Albert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects motor abilities with increasing severity as the disease progresses. Traditional methods for diagnosing PD include a section where a trained specialist scores qualitative symptoms using the motor subscale of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III). The aim of this feasibility study was twofold. First, to evaluate quiet standing as an additional, out-of-clinic, objective feature to predict UPDRS-III subscores related to motor symptom severity; and second, to use quiet standing to detect the presence of motor symptoms. Force plate data were collected from 42 PD patients and 43 healthy controls during quiet standing (a task involving standing still with eyes open and closed) as a feasible task in clinics. Predicting each subscore of the UPDRS-III could aid in identifying progression of PD and provide specialists additional tools to make an informed diagnosis. Random Forest feature importance indicated that features correlated with range of center of pressure (i.e., the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior sway) were most useful in the prediction of the top PD prediction subscores of postural stability (r = 0.599; p = 0.014), hand tremor of the left hand (r = 0.650; p = 0.015), and tremor at rest of the left upper extremity (r = 0.703; p = 0.016). Quiet standing can detect body bradykinesia (AUC-ROC = 0.924) and postural stability (AUC-ROC = 0.967) with high predictability. Although there are limited data, these results should be used as a feasibility study that evaluates the predictability of individual UPDRS-III subscores using quiet standing data.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3486-3494
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Issue number7
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2022


  • Parkinson's disease
  • Parkinson's disease diagnosis
  • machine learning
  • motor symptoms (MDS-UPDRS-III)
  • quiet standing


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