Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are integral to regulating a wide variety of cellular processes in eukaryotic cells, such as regulation of protein stability, alteration of celluar location, protein activity modulation, and regulation of protein interactions. HIV-1, like other eukaryotic viruses, and its infected host exploit the proteasomal degradation system for their respective proliferation and survival, using various PTMs, including but not limited to ubiquitination, SUMOylation, NEDDylation, interferon-stimulated gene (ISG)ylation. Essentially all viral proteins within the virions -- and in the HIV-1-infected cells -- interact with their cellular counterparts for this degradation, utilizing ubiquitin (Ub), and the Ub-like (Ubl) modifiers less frequently, to eliminate the involved proteins throughout the virus life cycle, from the entry step to release of the assembled virus particles. Such interplay is pivotal for, on the one hand, the cell to restrict proliferation of the infecting virus, and on the other, for molecular counteraction by the virus to overcome this cellular protein-imposed restriction. Recent reports indicate that not only viral/cellular proteins but also viral/viral protein interactions play vital roles in regulating viral protein stability. We hence give an overview of the molecular processes of PTMs involved in proteasomal degradation of the viral and cellular proteins, and the viral/viral and viral/cellular protein interplay in restriction and competition for HIV-1 vs. host cell survival. Insights in this realm could open new avenues for developing therapeutics against HIV-1 via targeting specific steps of the proteasome degradation pathway during the HIV-1 life cycle.
- Post-translational modification
- Proteasomal degradation
- Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers
- Ubiquitin proteasome system