We characterized a series of dimethylamino-stilbene derivatives as standards for time-domain and frequency-domain lifetime measurements. The substances have reasonable quantum yields, are soluble in solvents available with a high purity, and do not show significant sensitivity to oxygen quenching. All the fluorophores displayed single exponential intensity decays, as characterized by frequency-domain measurements to 10 GHz. The decay times vary from 880 to 57 ps, depending on structure, solvent, and temperature, which is a useful range for modern picosecond time-domain or gigahertz frequency-domain instruments. These fluorophores may be used either to test an instrument or as reference compounds to eliminate color effects. We also characterized two-fluorophore mixtures, with the decay times spaced twofold (150 and 300 ps), with varying proportions. These mixtures are useful for testing the resolution of other time- and frequency-domain instrumentation. The excitation wavelength ranges from 260 to 430 nm, and the emission from 350 to 550 nm. The decay times are independent of the excitation and emission wavelengths.
- 4,4′-substituted stilbenes
- Fluorescence spectroscopy
- frequency-domain fluorescence
- time-domain fluorescence
- time-resolved fluorescence