Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of oseltamivir combined with probenecid

Mark Holodniy, Scott R. Penzak, Timothy M. Straight, Richard T. Davey, Kelvin K. Lee, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Dennis W. Raisch, Francesca Cunningham, Emil T. Lin, Noemi Olivo, Lawrence R. Deyton

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45 Scopus citations


Oseltamivir is an inhibitor of influenza virus neuraminidase, which is approved for use for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza A and B virus infections. In the event of an influenza pandemic, oseltamivir supplies may be limited; thus, alternative dosing strategies for oseltamivir prophylaxis should be explored. Healthy volunteers were randomized to a three-arm, open-label study and given 75 mg oral oseltamivir every 24 h (group 1), 75 mg oseltamivir every 48 h (q48h) combined with 500 mg probenecid four times a day (group 2), or 75 mg oseltamivir q48h combined with 500 mg probenecid twice a day (group 3) for 15 days. Pharmacokinetic data, obtained by noncompartmental methods, and safety data are reported. Forty-eight subjects completed the pharmacokinetic analysis. The study drugs were generally well tolerated, except for one case of reversible grade 4 thrombocytopenia in a subject in group 2. The calculated 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the geometric mean ratios between groups 2 and 3 and group 1 were outside the bioequivalence criteria boundary (0.80 to 1.25) at 0.63 to 0.89 for group 2 versus group 1 and 0.57 to 0.90 for group 3 versus group 1. The steady-state apparent oral clearance of oseltamivir carboxylate was significantly less in groups 2 (7.4 liters/h; 90% CI, 6.08 to 8.71) and 3 (7.19 liters/h; 90% CI, 6.41 to 7.98) than in group 1 (9.75 liters/h; 90% CI, 6.91 to 12.60) (P < 0.05 for both comparisons by analysis of variance). The (arithmetic) mean concentration at 48 h for group 2 was not significantly different from the mean concentration at 24 h for group 1 (42 ± 76 and 81 ± 54 ng/ml, respectively; P = 0.194), but the mean concentration at 48 h for group 3 was significantly less than the mean concentration at 24 h for group 1 (23 ± 26 and 81 ± 54 ng/ml, respectively; P = 0.012). Alternate-day dosing of oseltamivir plus dosing with probenecid four times daily achieved trough oseltamivir carboxylate concentrations adequate for neuraminidase inhibition in vitro, and this combination should be studied further.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3013-3021
Number of pages9
JournalAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2008


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