Pharmacists and immunizations: a national survey.

S. S. Madhavan, S. A. Rosenbluth, M. Amonkar, R. D. Borker, T. Richards

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVES: To obtain information about pharmacists' current involvement in and willingness to provide immunization services, and to assess perceived barriers to providing immunization services. DESIGN: Cross-sectional mail survey. SETTING: National. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of 5,342 pharmacists from chain, independent, mass merchandiser/grocery, primary care clinic, and health maintenance organization settings. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Responses to survey on pharmacy-based immunization services--current involvement, willingness to get involved, perceived obstacles, and patients' interest. RESULTS: Three mailings yielded a response rate of 25.3% (1,348 responses). Only 53.1% of respondents knew correctly whether their state allowed pharmacists to administer immunizations. Although a significant number of pharmacists were involved in immunization activities, such as counseling and promotion, only 2.2% and 0.9% of respondents were involved in actual administration of adult and childhood immunizations, respectively. In general, men, independents, owners/partners, and pharmacists who had attended immunization-related educational programs were more willing to provide immunization services than were women, chain and staff pharmacists, and educational program nonattendees. Pharmacists who had attended immunization-related educational programs also perceived pharmacist- and patient-related factors as less problematic for pharmacy-based immunization services than did nonattendees. CONCLUSION: This survey provides a baseline measure of the nature and extent of pharmacist involvement in immunizations that can be used now and in future years. The profession can use the findings on pharmacists' willingness to provide immunization services and their perception of obstacles to such services as a basis for targeted educational and promotional programs and materials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32-45
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of the American Pharmaceutical Association (Washington,D.C. : 1996)
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2001


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