Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors suppress tumor cell growth via a broad spectrum of mechanisms, which should prove advantageous in the context of cancer prevention. Here, we examined the effect of dietary administration of OSU-HDAC42, a novel HDAC inhibitor, on prostate tumor progression in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Based on a series of pilot studies, an AIN-76A diet was formulated containing 208 ppm OSU-HDAC42, which was estimated to deliver ∼25 mg/kg of drug per day to each mouse and found to cause a suppression of PC-3 xenograft tumor growth equivalent to that achieved by gavage administration of a similar dose. At 6 weeks of age, TRAMP mice received this drug-containing or control diet for 4 or 18 weeks and were evaluated for prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and carcinoma development, respectively. OSU-HDAC42 not only decreased the severity of PIN and completely prevented its progression to poorly differentiated carcinoma (74% incidence in controls versus none in drug-treated mice), but also shifted tumorigenesis to a more differentiated phenotype, suppressing absolute and relative urogenital tract weights by 86% and 85%, respectively, at 24 weeks of age. This tumor suppression was associated with the modulation of intraprostatic biomarkers, including those indicative of HDAC inhibition, increased apoptosis and differentiation, and decreased proliferation. With the exception of completely reversible hematologic alterations and testicular degeneration, no significant changes in body weight or other indicators of general health were observed in drug-treated mice. These results suggest that OSU-HDAC42 has value in prostate cancer prevention.