This study investigated the role of oral contraception use versus nonuse as a moderator variable differentially influencing cognitive-emotional processes. Seventy-six healthy women (29 users and 47 nonusers; 18 to 48 years old), completed the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire, the Rotter Scale of locus of control, the Daily Hassles Scale, and a Repertory Grid. A subsample (N = 33) also volunteered for a blood draw. Hormonal levels of progesterone and estrogen mostly were unrelated to cognitive and emotional measures, and contraindicated the 'chemical suppression' proposition. Alternatively, when cognitive-emotional functioning was examined separately for users and nonusers, cognitive factors including the appraisal of stress, loci of control, and self-integration were implicated with specific patterns of negative affect and much more so for users than for nonusers. For the most part, oral contraceptive use versus nonuse seemed to influence the saliency rather than the nature of cognitive-emotional patterns. Discussion focused on oral contraceptive use as a moderator variable and the need for longitudinal research to clarify the evolving, biopsychosocial influence of hormonal regulatory treatment.