Optimization and scale up of microfluidic nanolipomer production method for preclinical and potential clinical trials

Andrew Gdowski, Kaitlyn Johnson, Sunil Shah, Ignacy Gryczynski, Jamboor K. Vishwanatha, Amalendu Prakash Ranjan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The process of optimization and fabrication of nanoparticle synthesis for preclinical studies can be challenging and time consuming. Traditional small scale laboratory synthesis techniques suffer from batch to batch variability. Additionally, the parameters used in the original formulation must be re-optimized due to differences in fabrication techniques for clinical production. Several low flow microfluidic synthesis processes have been reported in recent years for developing nanoparticles that are a hybrid between polymeric nanoparticles and liposomes. However, use of high flow microfluidic synthetic techniques has not been described for this type of nanoparticle system, which we will term as nanolipomer. In this manuscript, we describe the successful optimization and functional assessment of nanolipomers fabricated using a microfluidic synthesis method under high flow parameters. Results: The optimal total flow rate for synthesis of these nanolipomers was found to be 12 ml/min and flow rate ratio 1:1 (organic phase: aqueous phase). The PLGA polymer concentration of 10 mg/ml and a DSPE-PEG lipid concentration of 10% w/v provided optimal size, PDI and stability. Drug loading and encapsulation of a representative hydrophobic small molecule drug, curcumin, was optimized and found that high encapsulation efficiency of 58.8% and drug loading of 4.4% was achieved at 7.5% w/w initial concentration of curcumin/PLGA polymer. The final size and polydispersity index of the optimized nanolipomer was 102.11 nm and 0.126, respectively. Functional assessment of uptake of the nanolipomers in C4-2B prostate cancer cells showed uptake at 1 h and increased uptake at 24 h. The nanolipomer was more effective in the cell viability assay compared to free drug. Finally, assessment of in vivo retention in mice of these nanolipomers revealed retention for up to 2 h and were completely cleared at 24 h. Conclusions: In this study, we have demonstrated that a nanolipomer formulation can be successfully synthesized and easily scaled up through a high flow microfluidic system with optimal characteristics. The process of developing nanolipomers using this methodology is significant as the same optimized parameters used for small batches could be translated into manufacturing large scale batches for clinical trials through parallel flow systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12
JournalJournal of Nanobiotechnology
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 12 Feb 2018

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Microfluidics
Nanoparticles
Clinical Trials
Functional assessment
Curcumin
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Polymers
Encapsulation
Cells
Flow rate
Fabrication
Parallel flow
Liposomes
Polydispersity
Prostatic Neoplasms
Cell Survival
Lipids
Polyethylene glycols
Assays
Molecules

Keywords

  • Microfluidic
  • Nanoparticle synthesis
  • Optimization
  • Preclinical batch
  • Scale up

Cite this

@article{39e7adf0ba204305bafac09e099b3624,
title = "Optimization and scale up of microfluidic nanolipomer production method for preclinical and potential clinical trials",
abstract = "Background: The process of optimization and fabrication of nanoparticle synthesis for preclinical studies can be challenging and time consuming. Traditional small scale laboratory synthesis techniques suffer from batch to batch variability. Additionally, the parameters used in the original formulation must be re-optimized due to differences in fabrication techniques for clinical production. Several low flow microfluidic synthesis processes have been reported in recent years for developing nanoparticles that are a hybrid between polymeric nanoparticles and liposomes. However, use of high flow microfluidic synthetic techniques has not been described for this type of nanoparticle system, which we will term as nanolipomer. In this manuscript, we describe the successful optimization and functional assessment of nanolipomers fabricated using a microfluidic synthesis method under high flow parameters. Results: The optimal total flow rate for synthesis of these nanolipomers was found to be 12 ml/min and flow rate ratio 1:1 (organic phase: aqueous phase). The PLGA polymer concentration of 10 mg/ml and a DSPE-PEG lipid concentration of 10{\%} w/v provided optimal size, PDI and stability. Drug loading and encapsulation of a representative hydrophobic small molecule drug, curcumin, was optimized and found that high encapsulation efficiency of 58.8{\%} and drug loading of 4.4{\%} was achieved at 7.5{\%} w/w initial concentration of curcumin/PLGA polymer. The final size and polydispersity index of the optimized nanolipomer was 102.11 nm and 0.126, respectively. Functional assessment of uptake of the nanolipomers in C4-2B prostate cancer cells showed uptake at 1 h and increased uptake at 24 h. The nanolipomer was more effective in the cell viability assay compared to free drug. Finally, assessment of in vivo retention in mice of these nanolipomers revealed retention for up to 2 h and were completely cleared at 24 h. Conclusions: In this study, we have demonstrated that a nanolipomer formulation can be successfully synthesized and easily scaled up through a high flow microfluidic system with optimal characteristics. The process of developing nanolipomers using this methodology is significant as the same optimized parameters used for small batches could be translated into manufacturing large scale batches for clinical trials through parallel flow systems.",
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Optimization and scale up of microfluidic nanolipomer production method for preclinical and potential clinical trials. / Gdowski, Andrew; Johnson, Kaitlyn; Shah, Sunil; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K.; Ranjan, Amalendu Prakash.

In: Journal of Nanobiotechnology, Vol. 16, No. 1, 12, 12.02.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Optimization and scale up of microfluidic nanolipomer production method for preclinical and potential clinical trials

AU - Gdowski, Andrew

AU - Johnson, Kaitlyn

AU - Shah, Sunil

AU - Gryczynski, Ignacy

AU - Vishwanatha, Jamboor K.

AU - Ranjan, Amalendu Prakash

PY - 2018/2/12

Y1 - 2018/2/12

N2 - Background: The process of optimization and fabrication of nanoparticle synthesis for preclinical studies can be challenging and time consuming. Traditional small scale laboratory synthesis techniques suffer from batch to batch variability. Additionally, the parameters used in the original formulation must be re-optimized due to differences in fabrication techniques for clinical production. Several low flow microfluidic synthesis processes have been reported in recent years for developing nanoparticles that are a hybrid between polymeric nanoparticles and liposomes. However, use of high flow microfluidic synthetic techniques has not been described for this type of nanoparticle system, which we will term as nanolipomer. In this manuscript, we describe the successful optimization and functional assessment of nanolipomers fabricated using a microfluidic synthesis method under high flow parameters. Results: The optimal total flow rate for synthesis of these nanolipomers was found to be 12 ml/min and flow rate ratio 1:1 (organic phase: aqueous phase). The PLGA polymer concentration of 10 mg/ml and a DSPE-PEG lipid concentration of 10% w/v provided optimal size, PDI and stability. Drug loading and encapsulation of a representative hydrophobic small molecule drug, curcumin, was optimized and found that high encapsulation efficiency of 58.8% and drug loading of 4.4% was achieved at 7.5% w/w initial concentration of curcumin/PLGA polymer. The final size and polydispersity index of the optimized nanolipomer was 102.11 nm and 0.126, respectively. Functional assessment of uptake of the nanolipomers in C4-2B prostate cancer cells showed uptake at 1 h and increased uptake at 24 h. The nanolipomer was more effective in the cell viability assay compared to free drug. Finally, assessment of in vivo retention in mice of these nanolipomers revealed retention for up to 2 h and were completely cleared at 24 h. Conclusions: In this study, we have demonstrated that a nanolipomer formulation can be successfully synthesized and easily scaled up through a high flow microfluidic system with optimal characteristics. The process of developing nanolipomers using this methodology is significant as the same optimized parameters used for small batches could be translated into manufacturing large scale batches for clinical trials through parallel flow systems.

AB - Background: The process of optimization and fabrication of nanoparticle synthesis for preclinical studies can be challenging and time consuming. Traditional small scale laboratory synthesis techniques suffer from batch to batch variability. Additionally, the parameters used in the original formulation must be re-optimized due to differences in fabrication techniques for clinical production. Several low flow microfluidic synthesis processes have been reported in recent years for developing nanoparticles that are a hybrid between polymeric nanoparticles and liposomes. However, use of high flow microfluidic synthetic techniques has not been described for this type of nanoparticle system, which we will term as nanolipomer. In this manuscript, we describe the successful optimization and functional assessment of nanolipomers fabricated using a microfluidic synthesis method under high flow parameters. Results: The optimal total flow rate for synthesis of these nanolipomers was found to be 12 ml/min and flow rate ratio 1:1 (organic phase: aqueous phase). The PLGA polymer concentration of 10 mg/ml and a DSPE-PEG lipid concentration of 10% w/v provided optimal size, PDI and stability. Drug loading and encapsulation of a representative hydrophobic small molecule drug, curcumin, was optimized and found that high encapsulation efficiency of 58.8% and drug loading of 4.4% was achieved at 7.5% w/w initial concentration of curcumin/PLGA polymer. The final size and polydispersity index of the optimized nanolipomer was 102.11 nm and 0.126, respectively. Functional assessment of uptake of the nanolipomers in C4-2B prostate cancer cells showed uptake at 1 h and increased uptake at 24 h. The nanolipomer was more effective in the cell viability assay compared to free drug. Finally, assessment of in vivo retention in mice of these nanolipomers revealed retention for up to 2 h and were completely cleared at 24 h. Conclusions: In this study, we have demonstrated that a nanolipomer formulation can be successfully synthesized and easily scaled up through a high flow microfluidic system with optimal characteristics. The process of developing nanolipomers using this methodology is significant as the same optimized parameters used for small batches could be translated into manufacturing large scale batches for clinical trials through parallel flow systems.

KW - Microfluidic

KW - Nanoparticle synthesis

KW - Optimization

KW - Preclinical batch

KW - Scale up

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DO - 10.1186/s12951-018-0339-0

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JO - Journal of Nanobiotechnology

JF - Journal of Nanobiotechnology

SN - 1477-3155

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