Millions of people suffer from a wide variety of ocular diseases, many of which lead to irreversible blindness. The leading causes of irreversible blindness in the elderly - age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma - will continue to effect more individuals as the worldwide population continues to age. Although there are therapies for treating glaucoma, as well as ongoing clinical trials of treatments for age-related macular degeneration, there still is a great need for more efficacious treatments that halt or even reverse ocular diseases. The eye has special attributes that allow local drug delivery and non-invasive clinical assessment of disease, but it is also a highly complex and unique organ, which makes understanding disease pathogenesis and ocular drug discovery challenging. As we learn more about the cellular mechanisms involved in age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma, potentially, new drug targets will emerge. This review provides insight into some of the new approaches to therapy.