Novel thiol containing hybrid antioxidant-nitric oxide donor small molecules for treatment of glaucoma

Charles E. Amankwa, Sudershan R. Gondi, Adnan Dibas, Courtney Weston, Arlene Funk, Tam Nguyen, Kytai T. Nguyen, Dorette Z. Ellis, Suchismita Acharya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Oxidative stress induced death and dysregulation of trabecular meshwork (TM) cells contribute to the increased intraocular pressure (IOP) in primary open angle (POAG) glaucoma pa-tients. POAG is one of the major causes of irreversible vision loss worldwide. Nitric oxide (NO), a small gas molecule, has demonstrated IOP lowering activity in glaucoma by increasing aqueous humor outflow and relaxing TM. Glaucomatous pathology is associated with decreased antioxidant enzyme levels in ocular tissues causing increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that reduce the bioavailability of NO. Here, we designed, synthesized, and conducted in vitro studies of novel second-generation sulfur containing hybrid NO donor-antioxidants SA-9 and its active me-tabolite SA-10 to scavenge broad-spectrum ROS as well as provide efficient protection from t-butyl hydrogen peroxide (TBHP) induced oxidative stress while maintaining NO bioavailability in TM cells. To allow a better drug delivery, a slow release nanosuspension SA-9 nanoparticles (SA-9 NPs) was prepared, characterized, and tested in dexamethasone induced ocular hypertensive (OHT) mice model for IOP lowering activity. A single topical eye drop of SA-9 NPs significantly lowered IOP (61%) at 3 h post-dose, with the effect lasting up to 72 h. This class of molecule has high potential to be useful for treatment of glaucoma.

Original languageEnglish
Article number575
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2021


  • Glaucoma
  • Hybrid small molecule
  • Intra-ocular pressure
  • Nanosuspension
  • Nitric oxide
  • Superoxide radical


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