Up-regulation of Notch4 was observed in the endothelial cells in the arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in mice. However, whether Notch4 is also involved in brain AVMs in humans remains unclear. Here, we performed immunohistochemistry on normal brain vascular tissue and surgically resected brain AVMs and found that Notch4 was up-regulated in the subset of abnormal vessels of the brain AVM nidus, compared with control brain vascular tissue. Two-photon confocal images show that Notch4 was expressed not only in the endothelial but also in the smooth muscle cells of the vascular wall in brain AVMs. Western blotting shows that Notch4 was activated in brain AVMs, but not in middle cerebral artery of normal human brain, which was confirmed by immunostaining. Our findings suggest a possible contribution of Notch4 signalling to the development of brain AVMs in human.