Noninvasive measurement of cervical tri-planar motion in normal subjects

Tom Mayer, Susan Brady, Elizabeth Bovasso, Priscilla Pope, Robert Joseph Gatchel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

70 Scopus citations


An electronic digital inclinometer was used to obtain normative data on cervical mobility from 58 normal subjects. They consisted of 28 males (age range, 17-61) and 30 females (age range, 19-62). The measurements were taken from occiput to T1 in flexion-extension, lateral bend, and axial rotation, isolating the regional motion by measuring simultaneously the upper and lower margins of the eight mobile segments. A comparison of radiographs and inclinometer measures showed excellent correlations (r < 0.9997, P < 0.05). Normative data are presented. Gender-specific regional mobility differences occurred only in cervical extension, whereas no consistent age-related differences were found. Stiffer individuals could be found in either gender or any age group, but rigidity in one plane did not necessarily predict rigidity in another.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2191-2195
Number of pages5
Issue number15
StatePublished - 1 Jan 1993


  • Axial rotation
  • Cervical range of motion
  • Cervical spine
  • Coronal lateral bend
  • Impairment evaluation
  • Inclinometry
  • Sagittal flexion-extension


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