To determine if non-selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Non-Se GSH-Px) activity is present in rat lung, we fractionated rat lung soluble fractions from rats fed a selenium-deficient or control diet and measured glutathione peroxidase activity with both cumene hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide as substrates. We also measured glutathione S-transferase (GSH S-transferase) activity in the fractions with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as substrate. Non-Se GSH-Px activity was present (about 34% of total GSH-Px activity), and the peak present in the gel filtration chromatogram coeluted with the GSH S-transferase peak. We then measured GSH S-transferase activity in lung-soluble fractions from rats exposed to room air or 85% O2 for 5 days. Lung GSH S-transferase activity was increased in the oxygen-exposed animals when compared to the air-exposed controls. The increase in GSH S-transferase activity could represent the induction of lung non-Se GSH-Px activity.