Fractalkine (FKN), a chemokine highly expressed in the central nervous system, participates in inflammatory responses operative in many brain disorders including HIV-1 associated dementia (HAD). In this report, HIV-1 progeny virions and pro-inflammatory products led to FKN production associated with neuronal injury and apoptosis. FKN was produced by neurons and astrocytes; but differentially produced by the two cell types. Laboratory tests paralleled those in infected people where cerebrospinal fluid FKN levels in HIV-1 infected cognitively impaired (n=16) patients were found to be increased when compared to infected patients without cognitive impairment (n=8, P=0.0345). These results demonstrate a possible role of FKN in HAD pathogenesis.
- HIV-1 associated dementia