Network Control Mechanisms-Cellular Milieu

Victor V. Uteshev-Gaard, Alexander G. Gusev, Evgeny A. Sametsky

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The brain is a highly effective integrator and processor of sensory-motor signaling, which results from the synergistic and coordinated actions of neurons, glial cells, and the external milieu. Brain neurons form functional networks and communicate via chemical and electrical synapses, as well as diffusion (or volume) transmission and ephaptic transmission. Therefore, the external milieu supports both neuronal function and interneuronal communication. This chapter discusses the role of the external milieu in determining the effectiveness of neuronal networks. Various biophysical properties of the external milieu contribute to the effectiveness of neuronal network operation, including the presence of specific neuroactive compounds and ions in the extracellular fluid, the level of oxygen, the brain temperature, neuronal and glial communication, and the spatiotemporal distribution of inputs.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNeuronal Networks in Brain Function, CNS Disorders, and Therapeutics
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages10
ISBN (Print)9780124158047
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2014


  • Ex vivo
  • Extracellular space
  • Ion channels
  • Ion diffusion
  • Ionic homeostasis
  • Ischemia
  • Neuronal network
  • Seizure
  • Spreading depression


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