This chapter reflects the threat of existence and potential usage of bioweapons elaborating upon the history, programs, epidemiology, tools, bioinformatics and genetics of microbial forensics. Science plays an important role in criminal investigation, and microbial forensic science continues to assist in solving crimes by characterizing physical evidence found at a crime scene. Advances in technology will develop better treatments and therapies for many microbial diseases that affect humans, animals, and plants. However, technology can be misused to challenge the national and international security by using pathogens or toxins as weapons. In forensics, the crime scene is recognized and secured to preserve the quality of the evidence. Vigilance is necessary to detect the use of bioweapons. The chapter also stresses on educational efforts as a key to disease surveillance and appropriate public response to a disease outbreak, whether it is intentional or natural. By developing a robust microbial forensics field supported by the Bio forensic Analysis Center (BFAC), a developed knowledge base, integration of government; academic; and private sector institutions, and the standing working group- Scientific Working Group on Microbial Genetics and Forensics (SWGMGF), the global society can overcome the challenge of bioterrorism.