Methylene blue-induced neuronal protective mechanism against hypoxia-reoxygenation stress

M. G. Ryou, G. R. Choudhury, W. Li, A. Winters, F. Yuan, Ran Liu, Shaohua Yang

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Abstract

Brain ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs in various pathological conditions, but there is no effective treatment currently available in clinical practice. Methylene blue (MB) is a century-old drug with a newly discovered protective function in the ischemic stroke model. In the current investigation we studied the MB-induced neuroprotective mechanism focusing on stabilization and activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in an in vitro oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)-reoxygenation model. Methods: HT22 cells were exposed to OGD (0.1% O2, 6h) and reoxygenation (21% O2, 24h). Cell viability was determined with the calcein AM assay. The dynamic change of intracellular O2 concentration was monitored by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLTIM). Glucose uptake was quantified using the 2-[N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-Oxa-1,3-Diazol-4-yl)Amino]-2-Deoxy-d-Glucose (2-NBDG) assay. ATP concentration and glycolytic enzyme activity were examined by spectrophotometry. Protein content changes were measured by immunoblot: HIF-1α, prolyl hydroxylase 2 (PHD2), erythropoietin (EPO), Akt, mTOR, and PIP5K. The contribution of HIF-1α activation in the MB-induced neuroprotective mechanism was confirmed by blocking HIF-1α activation with 2-methoxyestradiol-2 (2-MeOE2) and by transiently transfecting constitutively active HIF-1α. Results: MB increases cell viability by about 50% vs. OGD control. Compared to the corresponding control, MB increases intracellular O2 concentration and glucose uptake as well as the activities of hexokinase and G-6-PDH, and ATP concentration. MB activates the EPO signaling pathway with a corresponding increase in HIF-1α. Phosphorylation of Akt was significantly increased with MB treatment followed by activation of the mTOR pathway. Importantly, we observed, MB increased nuclear translocation of HIF-1α vs. control (about three folds), which was shown by a ratio of nuclear:cytoplasmic HIF-1α protein content. Conclusion: We conclude that MB protects the hippocampus-derived neuronal cells against OGD-reoxygenation injury by enhancing energy metabolism and increasing HIF-1α protein content accompanied by an activation of the EPO signaling pathway.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)193-203
Number of pages11
JournalNeuroscience
Volume301
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2015

Fingerprint

Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1
Methylene Blue
Glucose
Erythropoietin
Oxygen
Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases
Cell Survival
Adenosine Triphosphate
Hypoxia
Proteins
Hexokinase
Spectrophotometry
Optical Imaging
Reperfusion Injury
Brain Ischemia
Brain Injuries
Energy Metabolism
Microscopy
Hippocampus
Stroke

Keywords

  • Hypoxia-inducible factor
  • Ischemia and reperfusion injury
  • Methylene blue
  • Neuroprotection
  • Oxygen and glucose deprivation

Cite this

Ryou, M. G. ; Choudhury, G. R. ; Li, W. ; Winters, A. ; Yuan, F. ; Liu, Ran ; Yang, Shaohua. / Methylene blue-induced neuronal protective mechanism against hypoxia-reoxygenation stress. In: Neuroscience. 2015 ; Vol. 301. pp. 193-203.
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abstract = "Brain ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs in various pathological conditions, but there is no effective treatment currently available in clinical practice. Methylene blue (MB) is a century-old drug with a newly discovered protective function in the ischemic stroke model. In the current investigation we studied the MB-induced neuroprotective mechanism focusing on stabilization and activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in an in vitro oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)-reoxygenation model. Methods: HT22 cells were exposed to OGD (0.1{\%} O2, 6h) and reoxygenation (21{\%} O2, 24h). Cell viability was determined with the calcein AM assay. The dynamic change of intracellular O2 concentration was monitored by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLTIM). Glucose uptake was quantified using the 2-[N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-Oxa-1,3-Diazol-4-yl)Amino]-2-Deoxy-d-Glucose (2-NBDG) assay. ATP concentration and glycolytic enzyme activity were examined by spectrophotometry. Protein content changes were measured by immunoblot: HIF-1α, prolyl hydroxylase 2 (PHD2), erythropoietin (EPO), Akt, mTOR, and PIP5K. The contribution of HIF-1α activation in the MB-induced neuroprotective mechanism was confirmed by blocking HIF-1α activation with 2-methoxyestradiol-2 (2-MeOE2) and by transiently transfecting constitutively active HIF-1α. Results: MB increases cell viability by about 50{\%} vs. OGD control. Compared to the corresponding control, MB increases intracellular O2 concentration and glucose uptake as well as the activities of hexokinase and G-6-PDH, and ATP concentration. MB activates the EPO signaling pathway with a corresponding increase in HIF-1α. Phosphorylation of Akt was significantly increased with MB treatment followed by activation of the mTOR pathway. Importantly, we observed, MB increased nuclear translocation of HIF-1α vs. control (about three folds), which was shown by a ratio of nuclear:cytoplasmic HIF-1α protein content. Conclusion: We conclude that MB protects the hippocampus-derived neuronal cells against OGD-reoxygenation injury by enhancing energy metabolism and increasing HIF-1α protein content accompanied by an activation of the EPO signaling pathway.",
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Methylene blue-induced neuronal protective mechanism against hypoxia-reoxygenation stress. / Ryou, M. G.; Choudhury, G. R.; Li, W.; Winters, A.; Yuan, F.; Liu, Ran; Yang, Shaohua.

In: Neuroscience, Vol. 301, 01.08.2015, p. 193-203.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Methylene blue-induced neuronal protective mechanism against hypoxia-reoxygenation stress

AU - Ryou, M. G.

AU - Choudhury, G. R.

AU - Li, W.

AU - Winters, A.

AU - Yuan, F.

AU - Liu, Ran

AU - Yang, Shaohua

PY - 2015/8/1

Y1 - 2015/8/1

N2 - Brain ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs in various pathological conditions, but there is no effective treatment currently available in clinical practice. Methylene blue (MB) is a century-old drug with a newly discovered protective function in the ischemic stroke model. In the current investigation we studied the MB-induced neuroprotective mechanism focusing on stabilization and activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in an in vitro oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)-reoxygenation model. Methods: HT22 cells were exposed to OGD (0.1% O2, 6h) and reoxygenation (21% O2, 24h). Cell viability was determined with the calcein AM assay. The dynamic change of intracellular O2 concentration was monitored by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLTIM). Glucose uptake was quantified using the 2-[N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-Oxa-1,3-Diazol-4-yl)Amino]-2-Deoxy-d-Glucose (2-NBDG) assay. ATP concentration and glycolytic enzyme activity were examined by spectrophotometry. Protein content changes were measured by immunoblot: HIF-1α, prolyl hydroxylase 2 (PHD2), erythropoietin (EPO), Akt, mTOR, and PIP5K. The contribution of HIF-1α activation in the MB-induced neuroprotective mechanism was confirmed by blocking HIF-1α activation with 2-methoxyestradiol-2 (2-MeOE2) and by transiently transfecting constitutively active HIF-1α. Results: MB increases cell viability by about 50% vs. OGD control. Compared to the corresponding control, MB increases intracellular O2 concentration and glucose uptake as well as the activities of hexokinase and G-6-PDH, and ATP concentration. MB activates the EPO signaling pathway with a corresponding increase in HIF-1α. Phosphorylation of Akt was significantly increased with MB treatment followed by activation of the mTOR pathway. Importantly, we observed, MB increased nuclear translocation of HIF-1α vs. control (about three folds), which was shown by a ratio of nuclear:cytoplasmic HIF-1α protein content. Conclusion: We conclude that MB protects the hippocampus-derived neuronal cells against OGD-reoxygenation injury by enhancing energy metabolism and increasing HIF-1α protein content accompanied by an activation of the EPO signaling pathway.

AB - Brain ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs in various pathological conditions, but there is no effective treatment currently available in clinical practice. Methylene blue (MB) is a century-old drug with a newly discovered protective function in the ischemic stroke model. In the current investigation we studied the MB-induced neuroprotective mechanism focusing on stabilization and activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in an in vitro oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)-reoxygenation model. Methods: HT22 cells were exposed to OGD (0.1% O2, 6h) and reoxygenation (21% O2, 24h). Cell viability was determined with the calcein AM assay. The dynamic change of intracellular O2 concentration was monitored by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLTIM). Glucose uptake was quantified using the 2-[N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-Oxa-1,3-Diazol-4-yl)Amino]-2-Deoxy-d-Glucose (2-NBDG) assay. ATP concentration and glycolytic enzyme activity were examined by spectrophotometry. Protein content changes were measured by immunoblot: HIF-1α, prolyl hydroxylase 2 (PHD2), erythropoietin (EPO), Akt, mTOR, and PIP5K. The contribution of HIF-1α activation in the MB-induced neuroprotective mechanism was confirmed by blocking HIF-1α activation with 2-methoxyestradiol-2 (2-MeOE2) and by transiently transfecting constitutively active HIF-1α. Results: MB increases cell viability by about 50% vs. OGD control. Compared to the corresponding control, MB increases intracellular O2 concentration and glucose uptake as well as the activities of hexokinase and G-6-PDH, and ATP concentration. MB activates the EPO signaling pathway with a corresponding increase in HIF-1α. Phosphorylation of Akt was significantly increased with MB treatment followed by activation of the mTOR pathway. Importantly, we observed, MB increased nuclear translocation of HIF-1α vs. control (about three folds), which was shown by a ratio of nuclear:cytoplasmic HIF-1α protein content. Conclusion: We conclude that MB protects the hippocampus-derived neuronal cells against OGD-reoxygenation injury by enhancing energy metabolism and increasing HIF-1α protein content accompanied by an activation of the EPO signaling pathway.

KW - Hypoxia-inducible factor

KW - Ischemia and reperfusion injury

KW - Methylene blue

KW - Neuroprotection

KW - Oxygen and glucose deprivation

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U2 - 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.05.064

DO - 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.05.064

M3 - Article

VL - 301

SP - 193

EP - 203

JO - Neuroscience

JF - Neuroscience

SN - 0306-4522

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