Metal-enhanced fluorescence immunoassays using total internal reflection and silver island-coated surfaces

Evgenia Matveeva, Zygmunt Gryczynski, Joanna Malicka, Ignacy Gryczynski, Joseph R. Lakowicz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

111 Scopus citations


We present a generic immunoassay platform that uses enhanced total internal reflection fluorescence in the proximity of silver island films (SIFs), a surface coating consisting of metal (silver) particles. This platform is used with a model immunoassay where a protein antigen, rabbit immunoglobulin G, was immobilized on the SIF-coated glass surface. The signal from a fluorescent dye-labeled anti-rabbit antibody binding to the surface antigen was detected; different color dyes have been tested. Close placement of the fluorophore to surface-bound silver nanostructures results in dramatic signal enhancement (up to 40-fold) on the SIFs as compared with the glass slides. Use of the total internal reflection mode of excitation has significant advantages (over classic front-face excitation) for practical assay development. The limited evanescent wave excitation volume makes it possible to minimize the background signal and use the immunoassay with no need for any washing steps.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)303-311
Number of pages9
JournalAnalytical Biochemistry
Issue number2
StatePublished - 15 Nov 2004


  • Enhanced fluorescence
  • Fluorescence immunoassay
  • Immunoglobulin
  • Nano-size metallic particles
  • Silver island films


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